Impact of environmental factors on the prevalence of autistic disorder after 1979
Theresa A. Deisher*, Ngoc V. Doan, Angelica Omaiye, Kumiko Koyama and Sarah Bwabye
Sound Choice Pharmaceutical Institute, 1749
Dexter Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.
Received 13 May, 2014; Accepted 9 July, 2014
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"The aim of this study was to investigate a previously overlooked, universally introduced environmental factor, fetal and retroviral contaminants in childhood vaccines, absent prior to change points (CPs) in autistic disorder (AD) prevalence with subsequent dose-effect evidence and known pathologic mechanisms of action. Worldwide population based cohort study was used for the design of this study. The United States, Western Australia, United Kingdom and Denmark settings were used. All live born infants who later developed autistic disorder delivered after 1 January 1970, whose redacted vaccination and autistic disorder diagnosis information is publicly available in databases maintained by the US Federal Government, Western Australia, UK, and Denmark. The live births, grouped by father’s age, were from the US and Australia. The children vaccinated with MMRII, Varicella and Hepatitis A vaccines varied from 19 to 35 months of age at the time of vaccination. Autistic disorder birth year change points were identified as 1980.9, 1988.4 and 1996 for the US, 1987 for UK, 1990.4 for Western Australia, and 1987.5 for Denmark. Change points in these countries corresponded to introduction of or increased doses of human fetal cell line-manufactured vaccines, while no relationship was found between paternal age or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) revisions and autistic disorder diagnosis. Further, linear regression revealed that Varicella and Hepatitis A immunization coverage was significantly correlated to autistic disorder cases. R software was used to calculate change points. Autistic disorder change points years are coincident with introduction of vaccines manufactured using human fetal cell lines, containing fetal and retroviral contaminants, into childhood vaccine regimens. This pattern was repeated in the US, UK, Western Australia and Denmark. Thus, rising autistic disorder prevalence is directly related to vaccines manufactured utilizing human fetal cells. Increased paternal age and DSM revisions were not related to rising autistic disorder prevalence.
...Association between approval of human fetal cell line manufactured vaccines and autistic disorder change points
Published AD data for the UK (Taylor et al., 1999) and North East London (Lingam et al., 2002) suggested that autistic disorder rose conspicuously around 1988 to1989, and our calculated chang point for the North East London data is 1987. While MMR coverage was over 90% before this time (Lingam et al., 2002), the autistic disorder change point followed a switch in the UK from
animal cell line to human fetal cell line manufacture of MMR vaccine in October 1988 (Table 3). Similarly, our calculated change point result of 1987.5 for Denmark corresponds to the introduction of MMR vaccine in 1987. The relationship between autistic disorder prevalence and use of vaccines manufactured were therefore evaluated using human fetal cell lines elsewhere.
The US 1980 to 1981 autistic disorder change point followed the January 1979 approval of MeruvaxII® and MMRII®, which are manufactured in the human fetal cell line WI-38. An earlier human fetal cell vaccine, Diplovax, had been licensed in the US in 1972. However, it was withdrawn in 1976 because it never gained any US market share, and therefore, the introduction of
MeruvaxII® and MMRII® would be the first fetal cell vaccines to impact the US, and correspond to the 1980 to 1981 autistic disorder change point. The US 1988.4 change point corresponded to the addition of a second dose of MMRII® to a measles vaccination campaign that increased compliance from ≤50 to 82% between birth years 1987 and 1989 (Centers for Disease Control 1989; Kaye and Jick 2001) as well as to the introduction of Poliovax in 1987. The 1995.6 autistic disorder change point corresponded to the approval and introduction of the Varicella vaccine (Varivax®). The Western Australia 1990 autistic disorder change point came shortly after the 1989 addition of MMR vaccine to the vaccination schedule, supplied solely with MMRII® (Table 3).
Association between autistic disorder and fetal cell manufactured vaccination coverage
US autistic disorder prevalence began rising after birth year 1978 (Newschaffer and Gurney 2005), and has continued to rise through birth year 2008. Figure 3A illustrates the continuing rise in US autistic disorder for 8 year olds born between 1992 and 2003. IDEA data for 3 year olds (not shown) through birth year 2008 demonstrates a continuing rise in US autistic disorder after 2003. Figure 3B illustrates that varicella coverage increased steadily after its approval in 1995 for children whose birth years were 1993 through 1998 to 1999, leveling off after reaching just over 80% saturation.
Hepatitis Avaccine (Havrix®) was approved for use in the US in 1995; however, it was neither part of the childhood immunization schedule nor recommended for use by any states. In 1999, 17 states began recommending/considering its use for children 24 months and older, and in 2005 it was included in the ACIP recommended vaccination schedule for children 12 months and older (Table 3). Hepatitis A coverage (Figure 3D) shows a more complicated compliance due to the non-uniform state recommendations from 1999 through 2005. Based on approval dates and recommendation dates, Hepatitis A use could have affected autistic disorder rates for children born in 1997 or later, however, there is not public data tracking vaccination rates prior to 2006. Extrapolating from age of immunization to birth years, Hepatitis A immunization coverage has increased steadily for birth year 2003 through birth year 2008 (Figure 3D).
To compare absolute numbers of children diagnosed with autistic disorder to the absolute numbers of children vaccinated with Varivax®, we performed linear regression analysis for birth years 1992 to 1998, during which time Varivax® coverage increased linearly. Additionally, birth years 1992 to 1998 were chosen because state variation in use of Hepatitis A vaccine after 1999 confounds the use of Varivax® as a measure of exposure to vaccines manufactured in human fetal cell lines for birth years subsequent to 1998. Figure 3C illustrates the highly significant correlation between the absolute number of children vaccinated with Varivax® and the absolute number of children diagnosed with autistic disorder(R2=0.8774; P<0.001). A similar strong correlation was also observed between the number of children vaccinated against Hepatitis A and the number of autistic disorder cases for birth years 2003 to 2008 (R2=0.6762; P<0.001). DNA residuals in human fetal cell line manufactured vaccines
In addition to the ingredients listed on the package insert for Meruvax II® (rubella), we detected significant levels of hum an ssDNA (142 ± 8 ng/vial) as well as dsDNA (35 ±10 ng/vial) fragmented to~215 base pairs in length. The MMR II® package insert discloses the presence of human fetal residuals nor how much cell substrate dsDNA or ssDNA contaminates each dose. In each vial of Havrix® , we detected ssDNA (301 ± 153 ng/vial) as well as dsDNA (44 ± 24 ng/vial) unfragmented residual DNA more than 48.5 K base pairs in length. The Havrix® pack age insert discloses the presence of human fetal cellular residuals from the MRC-5 cell line, but not the DNA contaminant levels specifically.
The Varivax® vaccine is manufactured using the human diploid cell line MRC5, and is contaminated with 2 micrograms of cell substrate double stranded DNA. Single stranded DNA levels are not reported in Merck’s Varivax Summary Basis for Approval document nor are the length of the DNA fragments contaminating the vaccine (Merck 2011).
...In 1979, coincident with the first autism disorder changepoint, vaccine manufacturing changes introduced human fetal DNA fragments and retroviral contaminants into childhood vaccines (Victoria et al., 2010). While we do not know the causal mechanism behind these new vaccine contaminants and autistic disorder, human fetal DNA fragments are inducers of autoimmune reactions, while both DNA fragments and retroviruses are known to potentiate genomic insertions and mutations (Yolken et al., 2000; Kurth 1998; U S Food and Drug Administration 2011). Infants and children are almost universally exposed to these additional vaccine components/contaminants, and these converging events are associated with rising autistic disorder in a dose-dependent fashion due to the increasing numbers of human fetal manufactured vaccines which have been added to the US immunization guidelines, including Pentacel®, which since 2008, contains inactivated polioviruses grown on the MRC-5 human fetal cell line. Pentacel® is recommended for children at 2, 4 and 6 months of age, and may account for the recent idea that scientists have become more adept at diagnosing autism at younger age. Diagnosis at younger age may more likely be the result of introducing human fetal cell vaccine contaminates to younger children.
Vaccines that have been cultured on or manufactured using the WI-38 fetal cell line such as MeruvaxII®, MMRII®, Varivax®, Havrix® and Pentacel® are additionally contaminated with fragments of human endogenous retrovirus HERVK (Victoria et al., 2010). Recent evidence has shown that human endogenous retroviral transcripts are elevated in the brains of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (Frank et al., 2005), in peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes of patients with autism spectrum (Freimanis et al., 2010) as well as associated with several autoimmune diseases (Tai et al., 2008). The strong ecological association between human fetal cell line-manufactured vaccines and autistic disorder change points calls for further investigation of these childhood vaccine contaminants, and for the sake of preserving critical vaccination coverage, even a return to animal-based manufacturing.
Manufacture of childhood vaccines in human fetal cell lines, with its associated retroviral and human DNA fragment contaminants, fulfills all of the necessary requirements as a primary trigger for the ND disease, autistic disorder. The contaminants were not present prior to the first US autistic disorder change point, they have continued to increase the environment with additional human fetal vaccine approvals and doses, and they have clinically documented adverse immunologic and mutagenic side effects. With the 2008 US approval of Pentacel® for children at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, we may be seeing age of onset of regressive autism decrease dramatically..."
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