Saturday, March 17, 2012

HOW DID FLOURIDE, A WELL-KNOWN NEURO-TOXIN THAT ALTERS BRAIN FUNCTIONING, END UP IN OUR DRINKING WATER AND TOOTHPASTE?



"How did it all begin? In a nutshell, toxic waste in search of a market.

Fluoride is a toxic byproduct in the manufacture of nuclear arms, aluminum, cement, steel, and phosphates. Up until 1931, the American Dental Association and the US Public Health Service recognized that fluoride caused dental problems, and that every effort should be made to remove such contamination from drinking water. (Fluoride the Aging Factor, p 140) Over the past 60 years, a mountain of research has proven without a doubt that fluoride is harmful to our health. You’ll be shocked to learn that not 1 independent study has ever found any health benefits to fluoridating water. Water fluoridation programs were started before any clinical trials or studies were conducted. That alone speaks volumes.

By 1980, the ADA's tune had changed a little:

" ... there is no evidence implicating naturally occurring fluorides as a health hazard even at eight parts per million."- ADA News 24 Mar 1980."

In the face of all the decades of research, this arrogant and groundless pronouncement, by the profession to whom we have entrusted our teeth, is saying that our water could have 8 times as much fluoride as it has now, and still be perfectly safe!

Here are the Players: ALCOA Aluminum, mega-giant producer of aluminum, was founded by Andrew Mellon, who was also appointed Secretary of Treasury, since he seemed to know something about money. ALCOA funded a top research facility known as the Mellon Institute. In 1931, a Mellon Institute report by Gerald Cox suggested that 1 PPM fluoride added to drinking water would be good for the teeth. That was it. No studies, no comparisons, no data. All previous research studies had shown that fluoride was toxic. Stay with me now. The US Public Health Service (USPHS) at that time was under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Treasury - Andrew Mellon, who also owned ALCOA. The USPHS sponsored some research put out by their own Dr. HT Dean, manipulating data so that it "proved" that this same figure of 1 PPM resulted in reduction of tooth decay. So now there were two studies, one by Cox and one by Dean, both funded by agencies controlled by ALCOA, both supporting this arbitrary figure of 1 PPM fluoride that should be added to the water to lower tooth decay.

Next problem: sell it to the American Medical Association and the American Dental Association. This took years. Even in 1943, an article in JAMA described fluoride as a poison that damaged enzyme systems even at a concentration of 1 PPM. The article showed concern about 25,000 tons of fluorine released into the atmosphere every year from the phosphate fertilizer industry. (JAMA, Sept 18, 1943). The following year Journal of the American Dental Association ran another article warning that fluoridated water caused osteoporosis, goiter, and spinal disease. They stated that "the potentialities for harm far outweigh those for good." (JADA, 1 Oct 1944) So how did fluoridation get started then, with all this information - thousands of negative scientific papers and only two favorable studies? ALCOA money, that's how.

In 1944, ALCOA hired an attorney named Oscar Ewing at a salary of $750,000 per year. That same year Ewing was appointed to the Federal Security Administration. The USPHS was a division of the Federal Security Association. So now ALCOA's boy was in a position to control the policies of the Public Health Service. Ewing chose his PR man for fluoridation: Edward Bernays, the nephew of Sigmund Freud. Edward L. Bernays, described by the Washington Post as the 'original spin doctor" was responsible for evolving the pro-fluoridation propaganda and disinformation machine. How anxious he was to put his uncle's ideas and methods of persuasion into action. (Dr. Y, p143)

" ... those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country ... our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of ... " - Bernays, (Propaganda)

Using classical Freudian principles, Bernays maintained that a well-oiled propaganda machine could make the public believe practically anything, even the exact opposite of what had been already proven by all existing scientific research. And this is exactly what Ewing needed in the case of fluoridation.

With help from "experts" of the Manhattan Project, like Harold Hodge, New York State politicians quickly learned which side their bread was buttered on. In May of 1945, the city of Newburgh, NY was the first to "try" fluoridation. The residents were supposed to be monitored by the state Health Department for ten years. That became the pattern - fluoride is the first drug in history to be tested on the general population with no previous research. Except of course for vaccines. One of the next cities to fall was Grand Rapids, Michigan. In July 1945, in the face of persistent warnings from the AMA, Grand Rapids succumbed to Bernays' propaganda machine and began a ten year "test period" of fluoridation in which tooth decay rates would be monitored. No one asked the question why the testing was being done on humans in an entire city. The project was run by HT Dean, using the statistics of Cox's original 1931 paper that arbitrarily claimed that 1 PPM fluoride was a safe level to prevent tooth decay, with no research to back it up. Dr. Dean almost single-handedly developed the hypothesis that fluoride could prevent cavities. He is "the father of fluoridation." Dean did no research on his own, and in later years, twice admitted in court that Cox's original statistics were incorrect! (Foulkes, 1992) But the entire system of fluoridation of US city water is based on the admittedly unscientific "findings" of Dean and Cox. Bernays' propaganda machine now went into full swing - ads with smiling children with beautiful teeth flooded the country's media. All anti-fluoride studies and articles were systematically suppressed because they weren't sanctioned by the big lobbyists for the aluminum and fertilizer industries.

Tons of new literature written not by doctors and scientists but by PR people and psychologists portrayed those opposing the sacred fluoridation as right- wing wackos. Just like in Orwell's book 1984, they tried to re-write history, to go back and change the findings of valid research, not by doing new research, but simply by new PR.

"I sometimes wonder if the Aluminum Co. of America ... might not have a deep interest in getting rid of its waste products from the manufacture of aluminum because these products contain a large amount of fluoride. ... it is interesting to note that Oscar Ewing who now heads up the FSA, the parent organization of the US Public Health Service, and the firm of attorneys he deals with ... represents the Aluminum Co. of America." - Congressman A.L. Miller

It gets darker. You may want to go for popcorn here. Dovetailing contemporaneously into all the above activity is some mind-blowing information that was recently uncovered by two reporters commissioned to write an article for the Christian Science Monitor. Working from secret government documents that have just become declassified in the last three years or so, Joel Griffiths and Chris Bryson have illuminated a very scary liaison: fluoride and the Manhattan Project. As we all remember, the Manhattan Project was the WWII secret program which brought the atomic bomb into existence. Turns out fluoride was a key component in the production of this bomb, in two main applications: in the uranium complex itself, and also as a toxic waste material. (Fluoride & Brain Damage) There was an accident in 1943 that had to be covered up, big time. DuPont was the chemical company charged with producing millions of gallons of fluoride for the Manhattan Project. A DuPont facility in Deepwater, New Jersey dumped so much fluoride into the air and water that things they couldn't hide started happening in the towns downwind:

* poultry died

* horses got sick and couldn't work

* cows became so crippled they could only crawl on their bellies to graze

* the peach crop was destroyed

* fluoride content of local vegetables was off the charts

* abnormally high level of fluoride in the blood of the local people

* even the workers at DuPont began to get sick

Now all this may not seem like a big deal compared with the development of the most top secret weapon in history, but the farmers in those towns didn't know nothing about no atomic bomb. Hiroshima hadn't happened yet. All these farmers knew was that the chemical company was poisoning the air and the water. The chief toxicologist for the Manhattan Project was a guy named Harold Hodge. Hodge was the first to notice the horrific effects of fluoride pollution on the local environment, and alerted his superiors in several memos, which have now been declassified. In true military fashion, Hodges' superiors took the warnings seriously and thought them worthy of investigation, not because of the dangers to human and animal life, but because of the legal liability to DuPont and the government if the farmers were successful in a lawsuit.

So the head of the Manhattan Project, Gen. Groves, directed Harold Hodge to research the toxicity of fluoride spills for one reason: their own legal defense against the farmers. Hodge was granted funding to study the nerve effects of fluoride way back in 1944. It is likely that the research was carried out, but it is missing from the declassified papers. What a surprise. (Check out Griffith and Bryson's well-researched "Fluoride, Teeth, and the A-Bomb.") Not until 1991 was the there any published research on the neurological effects of fluoride, when it was discovered that fluoride was a powerful neuro-toxin that could affect human brain development and functioning, even at low levels. Even though Hodge collaborated on Mullenix's research some 50 years after the Manhattan Project, and it is almost certain that Hodge was the one who conducted the missing research in 1944, Hodge maintained a strict silence on the subject. These guys knew how to keep a secret. Here's just one example of the difference between old published versions of fluoride research documents and secret versions of those same documents that have recently been declassified:

Old Version, Published In Journal Of The American Dental Association, Aug 1948:

The men who used experimental fluoride had fewer cavities

Secret Version, Recently De-Classified:

Most of the men had no teeth left

Remember, this was the beginning of the Atomic Age. Hiroshima and Nagasaki were just the opening act. The game was not world destruction, but rather atomic bomb production. By 1946 the government and industry were out to arm the world with atomic, and eventually nuclear, weaponry. The billions of dollars all that represented, not to mention the balance of world power (America first) - all this was not going to be derailed just because a few horses died and the peaches didn't come in one year.

Fluoridation gathered momentum, supported by the billions that could be made from selling a toxic waste to city water providers and the untold billions behind the arms manufacturers outfitting the world with nuclear weapons. Gradually, the AMA and the ADA, began to soften their views toward fluoridation, until they had made a complete 180-degree shift in their opinion, as cited above.

By 1952, the American Dental Association had turned completely, publishing the articles of radical fluoride advocate Frank Bull in the JADA. Bull's whole focus was disinformation; avoiding confrontation with actual studies. As the B in BS, Bull put the propaganda theories of Barney’s into actual practice.

Next, Procter and Gamble scored big when they got the ADA to endorse fluoride in toothpaste. Any dentists who spoke out against this ADA decision were censured, lost grant funding, or were thrown out of the ADA.

By 1960 the alliance was formed:

ALCOA

the US Public Health Service

the Federal Security Administration

the American Dental Association

Procter & Gamble.

FYI

A 1998 laboratory analysis done at Sequoia Analytical Labs in California showed very high concentrations of fluoride in the following foods:

Dole pineapple, canned

Snapple

Coke Classic

Hansen's soda

Minute Maid orange juice

Gerber strawberry juice for babies

Amstel Lite beer

Rice Dream

Sunny Delight orange drink

Pepsi

What are the health consequences of fluoride? Dr Mercola, and expert in this field, says it best: “Once in the body, fluoride is a destroyer of human enzymes. It does this by changing their shapes. You'll remember from the Enzymes chapter that in human biochemistry, thousands of enzymes are necessary for various essential cell reactions that take place every second we're alive. (Howell) Without enzymes, we'd die instantaneously. Enzymes trigger specific reactions in the body. One way they do this is by having the exact shape necessary, like a key in a lock. Fluoride changes the shape of the enzymes so that they no longer fit! Since enzymes are proteins, once they've been changed, they're now foreign-looking. The body now treats them as invaders, even though they're part of that body. This is known as an autoimmune situation - the body attacks itself. Another way to look at it: enzymes are long-chain proteins held in certain shapes. Hydrogen bonds are the Velcro strips that hold the enzyme in a certain shape. Fluoride comes along and hydrolyzes the enzyme: cuts the Velcro strips away. The shape collapses. No more enzymes; just a new foreign protein.”

Here are some of the other health consequences we face, according to well established research, because almost everything we eat or drink was grown or processed in areas where water is fluorinated, mainly California. (More info from Dr. Mercola):

Dr. Taylor Study, University of Austin: “..fluoride concentration of 1PPM (parts per million) increases tumor growth rate by 25%”

Fluoride is more poisonous than lead, and just less poisonous than arsenic - Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products – 1984

A seven ounce tube of toothpaste, theoretically at least, contains enough fluoride to kill a small child. - Procter&Gamble, quoted in Fluoride the Aging Factor p14

Fluoride supplements should not be given to children under three years old - 1992 Canadian Dental Association Proposed Fluoride Guidelines, Dr. Limeback

Austrian researchers proved in the 1970s that as little as 1 ppm fluoride concentration can disrupt DNA repair enzymes by 50%. When DNA can't repair damaged cells, we get old fast.


Fluoride prematurely ages the body, mainly by distortion of enzyme shape. Again, when enzymes get twisted out of shape, they can't do their jobs. This results in collagen breakdown, eczema, tissue damage, skin wrinkling, genetic damage, and immune suppression. Practically any disease you can name may then be caused.

All systems of the body are dependent upon enzymes. When fluoride changes the enzymes, this can damage:

* immune system

* digestive system

* respiratory system

* blood circulation

* kidney function

* liver function

* brain function

* thyroid function


Things wear out too fast - the young body becomes old. The distorted enzymes are proteins, but now they have become foreign protein, which we know is the exact cause of autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, arthritis, asthma, and arteriosclerosis.

Collagen Is The Body's Glue and Fluoride Ruins It That's not just a metaphor; when collagen breaks down, tissues simply lose their substance, their framework. Fluoride dissolves the body's glue simply by preventing new collagen from being formed.. Not only is the collagen incorrectly formed, it is wrongly mineralized. Some collagen, like bones and teeth, should be mineralized in order to give it hardness. Other collagen structures, like ligaments, tendons and, and muscles, should not be mineralized, in order to keep them flexible and resilient. Fluoride mineralizes the tendons, and muscles and ligaments, making them crackly and painful and inflexible. At the same time fluoride interferes with mineralization of bones and teeth, causing osteoporosis and mottling or dental fluorosis.

But at least fluoride is good for your teeth, right? That’s the only reason why we fluoridated water in the first place ….to prevent cavities and build strong teeth in our kids, right? Wrong again. The scientific literature of the past 40 years proving beyond a reasonable doubt that fluoride interferes with tooth formation, causing permanent discoloration and actual crumbling. The process whereby teeth are discolored and crumble from fluoridation is know as dental fluorosis. The US Public Health service has known since the research of its own Dr. HT Dean in 1937 that as fluoride levels rose, so did the percentage of children with dental fluorosis, in a study of 15 major American cities. The same findings were evident in a University of Texas study comparing dental fluorosis in children who lived in fluoridated and un-fluoridated areas of Texas. Dr. Segretto found a 35% higher incidence of fluorosis in children who drank water with fluorine concentration of 1-1.4 PPM, compared with those whose water was in the .3 PPM range. This little study was written up in the Journal of the American Dental Association. Dr. Yiamouyiannis goes on and on, citing one peer-reviewed study after another, all coming to the same inescapable conclusion: The More Fluoride In The Water, The More Tooth Malformation And Discoloration. It's beyond controversy, when you view these studies from all over the world - New Zealand, India, Denmark, England, Ireland, Italy, Illinois - same finding. Even with this consistent finding across the board, the standard level of fluoridation recommended for dental health in the US is 1 part per million.



Toxicity of Fluoride; What the U.S. Government Knows

(excerpts taken from gov. docs: http://www.cpsc.gov/businfo/frnotices/fr98/fluoride.html)

Most available toxicity information on fluoride relates to acute toxicity of hydrofluoric acid ("HF"). However, other water soluble fluoride-containing compounds can cause fluoride poisoning. The fluoride ion is systemically absorbed almost immediately. It is highly penetrating and reactive and can cause both systemic poisoning and tissue destruction. Fluoride ions, once separated from either HF or fluoride salts, penetrate deep into tissues, causing burning at sites deeper than the original exposure site. The process of tissue destruction can continue for days.

Fluoride absorption can produce hyperkalemia (elevated serum potassium), hypocalcemia (lowered serum calcium), hypomagnesemia (lowered serum magnesium), and metabolic and respiratory acidosis. These disturbances can then bring on cardiac arrhythmia, respiratory stimulation followed by respiratory depression, muscle spasms, convulsions, central nervous system ("CNS") depression, possible respiratory paralysis or cardiac failure, and death. Fluoride may also inhibit cellular respiration and glycolysis, alter membrane permeability and excitability, and cause neurotoxic and adverse GI effects.

When exposure is through inhalation, fluorides can cause severe chemical burns to the respiratory system. Inhalation can result in difficulty breathing (dyspnea), bronchospasms, chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, airway obstruction, and tracheobronchitis. The severity of burns from dermal absorption can vary depending on the concentration of fluoride available, duration of the exposure, the surface area exposed, and the penetrability of the exposed tissue. Ocular exposure can result in serious eye injury Ingestion of fluoride can result in mild to severe GI symptoms.

Fluoride in Prescription Drugs

Over the past several years, numerous fluoride-containing medications have been pulled off the market for causing deaths and illness. Fluoride is "highly toxic to the liver," expert Andreas Schuld of Vancouver, BC Canada said. Schuld, head of Parents of Fluoride Poisoned Children, explained that "In the liver all fluorides interfere with the metabolism of thyroid hormones, creating thyroid disorders and associated diseases, such as muscle diseases, heart disease, etc." Other effects can include a serious muscle disease that causes pain and weakness. He cited the recent withdrawal of Baycol, a cholesterol-lowering drug taken by 700,000 Americans, as an example of hidden fluoride-induced dangers that could be lurking in your medications. Baycol, Schuld said, has been linked to 31 U.S. deaths, with at least nine other fatalities worldwide. Here are some other fluoride containing drugs that were pulled for causing negative health effects:

Cisapride ("Propulsid") was withdrawn because it caused severe cardiac side effects (2000);

* Mibedrafil ("Posicor") was withdrawn after it was shown that patients with congestive heart failure
showed a trend to higher mortality (1998);

* Flosequinan was withdrawn in 1993 after it was shown that the beneficial effects on the symptoms of
heart failure did not last beyond the first 3 months of therapy. After the first 3 months of therapy, patients on the drug had a higher rate of hospitalization than patients taking a placebo;

* Astemizole (allergy drug) was withdrawn in 1999 because it also became associated with serious
life threatening cardiac adverse events;

* Fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine were withdrawn in 1997 due to serious cardiac adverse
health effects;

* Tolrestat (anti-diabetic) was withdrawn in 1997 after the appearance of severe liver toxicity and deaths;

* In 1992 Abbott withdrew the antibiotic Temafloxacin ("Omniflox"). The drug had caused deaths, liver
dysfunction, etc.

* Grepafloxacin was removed from the market in 1999 because of serious cardiac events.

In addition, Schuld cites concerns about both Paxil and Prozac, popular anti-depression drugs. He claims that the fluoride-enhanced drugs not only have a risk of causing liver damage, but also interfere with thyroid hormones and potentially even with thyroid medications routinely taken by millions. Citing the well-publicized case Fen-Phen, a once-popular weight-reducing drug, Schuld said that "it is important to note that only the fluorinated compound ("Fen" - fenfluramine) was withdrawn, while Phentermine ("Phen") was not pulled."

The worry and ensuing investigations about fluoride in medicines are worldwide. Among them are yet another class of drugs: antibiotics. Schuld's documents cite international concerns about fluoroquinolone antibiotics, which are used in the treatment of a large variety of infections. In October 1994 the Japan Pharmaceutical Affairs Bureau amended the roduct information for Enoxacin, Fleroxacin, Norfloxacin, Sparfloxacin and Tosufloxacin to state that rhabdomyolysis may occur. Information on Adverse Reactions to Drugs No.128, October 1994.) Five years ago, the Sri Lanka Drug Evaluation Sub-Committee decided to include a warning statement about fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

Cancer And Fluoride

By now we all know how cancer begins with one cell whose inner blueprint - its DNA - has been screwed with. Remember those Velcro hydrogen bonds? Guess what other shape they hold together. The double helix - DNA. This turns out to be the exact mechanism of fluoride as a carcinogen. Austrian and Japanese researchers both found that a concentration of 1 PPM fluoride causes disruption of the body's ability to repair its own DNA. Without this most basic cell function, cancer is promoted, and tumor growth is accelerated. That's standard fluoride level in US city water: one part per million. On p. 65 of his book, Dr. Yiamouyiannis provides an amazing chart of some 19 major scientific studies conducted in universities all over the world, together proving beyond a doubt that fluoride causes genetic damage. End of story. Except that on p 68, there is another list of world studies proving the same thing with plants and insects - genetic alteration from fluoride. Chief chemist of the National Cancer Institute, Dr. Dean Burk when confronted with mountains of data, stated before Congress:

"In point of fact, fluoride causes more human cancer death, and causes it faster than any other chemical." - Congressional Record 21 July 1976

Can That Be Misconstrued? Burk and Yiamouyiannis completed a monumental research project in 1977 in which they compared cancer death rates in 10 fluoridated and 10 non-fluoridated US cities between 1940 and 1970. The results are on p75 of Fluoride the Aging Factor. The unmistakable fact is that the graph shows that for the first ten years (1940-1950), when none of the 20 cities fluoridated, the average cancer deaths were virtually identical. But after 1950, there is a major increase in cancer deaths in every single one of the fluoridated cities, while the non-fluoridated cities remain clustered together at a much lower level of death. They actually put a number on it:

" ... 30,000 to 50,000 deaths each year from various causes may now be attributable to fluoridation. This total includes 10,000 to 20,000 deaths attributable to fluoride-induced cancer every year."

These findings were first confirmed, then denied by the National Cancer Institute (what a surprise). Finally the research was upheld as valid in two separate state courts, Pennsylvania and Illinois. Ask yourself, why are findings of a scientific study being disputed in court? The usual pattern whenever valid research threatens big money. Another study by the New Jersey Health Dept., cited by Dr. Y, found a 50% increase in bone cancer among young men in fluoridated areas. (Cohn) Dr. William Hirzy, an officer in the EPA explains:

"Fluoride is a broad-spectrum mutagen. It can cause genetic damage in both plant and animal cells." Once again, this is just the tip of the iceberg. Hundreds of scientific studies conducted and reported in the most credible universities and agencies throughout the world for the past 25 years have found an unmistakable correlation between fluoridation and cancer deaths. Even the professional opinion makers can't just make all this data vanish. All they can do is what they're trained to do: change the subject. And keep repeating how safe and effective fluoride is.

Brain Damage and Low IQ

The earliest reference to brain disruption from fluoride exposure is found in a recently declassified secret Manhattan Project memo (1944): "Clinical evidence suggests that C616 [uranium hydrofluoride] may have a rather marked central nervous system effect with mental confusion, drowsiness and lassitude ... " Not until 1991 was there any published research on the neurological effects of fluoride, when it was discovered that fluoride was a powerful neuro-toxin that could affect human brain development and functioning, even at low levels.

Fluoride And Osteoporosis

Bone is collagen. We already saw how fluoride disrupts the formation of enzymes necessary for collagen production. So it's no wonder then that the thin brittle bones characteristic of osteoporosis are the result of fluoridation. This is no false claim. DR Yiamouyiannis cites the 1990 study of 541,000 cases of osteoporosis that found a definite connection between hip fractures in women over 65 and fluoride levels. The study was written up in JAMA. Several other major studies are cited, massive amounts of research, again all reaching the same conclusion - the undeniable correlation of fluoridation with osteoporosis and hip fracture in the elderly. Bone Is Living Tissue.

It is constantly being replaced with new cells, and having old cells removed. Bone building is a finely balanced, complicated process. Fluoride has been known to disrupt this process since the 1930s. Dr. Alesen, who was the president of the California Medical Association, clearly explains what fluoride does to bone formation. He cites dozens of international scientific studies proving beyond a shadow of a doubt that fluoride has caused thousands of cases of osteoporosis, skeletal thinning, fractures, "rubber bones," anemia, and rickets. Fluoride also causes osteoporosis by creating a calcium deficiency situation. Fluoride precipitates calcium out of solution, causing low blood calcium, as well as the buildup of calcium stones and crystals in the joints and organs. Dozens of other studies, like the Riggs study in the 1990 New England Journal of Medicine, showed that fluoride treatment of osteoporosis in the elderly actually increases skeletal fragility, i.e., more fractures. It's the same mechanism at work: incorrect mineralization, as we saw above. Thin old bones lose calcium; young bones age too rapidly by over-mineralization. Using fluoride as a treatment for diseases like osteoporosis has always been a particularly dumb idea, because of side effects known beforehand:

*general arthritis

* stomach pain

* nausea

* vomiting

* bone spurs

* bone inflammationhttp://www.blogger.com/img/blank.gif

* kidney fibrosis

* dental fluorosis

Other mineral contaminants like lead and strontium-90 are damaging to human bone just by means of their occupying space where they don't belong. They are inert. The difference with fluoride is that it is biochemically active. With all the diseases caused by fluoride, the common thread is " ... virtually all these ill effects can be traced to the effect of fluoride on enzymes or proteins, as well as a possible direct effect on the DNA molecule itself." Above we saw how fluoride changes the all-important shape of enzymes, thereby rendering them not only useless, but actually foreign antigens."

How did the Flouride Scam Begin?
http://www.air-purifiers-superstore.com/fluoride_scam_how_it_all_began.html

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