Tuesday, January 23, 2018

RADIATION EXPERIMENTS ON PREGNANT WOMEN - THAT CONTINUE TO THIS DAY



Although the article below states that nearly 1,000 pregnant women were deliberately exposed to radiation for experimentation, in Truth, millions (perhaps billions) of pregnant women have been exposed to radiation through the medical system's use of x-rays and ultrasound during pregnancy. There are very, very few babies born today who have not been exposed to manmade radiation while in utero and we are seeing the effects of this hideous medical attack in the poor health of the children, the growing rates of intrauterine growth restriction, miscarriage, premature birth and fetal demise, the skyrocketing rates of autism and other neurological diseases in children, and the growing epidemic of male infertility which is bound to get worse because ultrasound stops sperm production. The medical system is not our friend. (((Those who control it))) seek to destroy us.

Source Article:
US Gov’t Caught Experimenting on Hundreds of Poor Pregnant Women With Radiation
http://thefreethoughtproject.com/1940s-study-exposed-pregnant-women-with-radiation-to-see-what-would-happen/

Nearly 1,000 pregnant women were given radioactive iron by their doctors without their knowledge, as part of a series of experiments for the US military during the Cold War.

Between the years of 1945 and 1947, researchers at Vanderbilt University conducted a twisted experiment in which hundreds of pregnant women were exposed to radiation intentionally for the purpose of testing how it affected both the child and mother.

The study was funded by the U.S. Public Health Service and overseen by the Tennessee State Department of Health. All of these women were poor and had no knowledge of the experiment, and were never informed that they were a part of a study.

Somewhere between 750 and 850 women were given trace amounts of radioactive iron in a “cocktail” drink during their pregnancies by health officials they trusted. Dr. Paul Hahn, the lead researcher behind the experiments, claimed that the study was intended to record the absorption of iron during pregnancy.

However, in the years since, many pundits and journalists have theorized that these experiments were a part of a military study to learn about radiation exposure. When the university was finally investigated for these experiments in the early 1990s, Department of Energy Spokesperson Mary Ann Freeman revealed that Vanderbilt University conducted research experiments involving radiation for the US military during the Cold War.

The story broke into the news after decades when three women—Emma Craft, Helen Hutchison and her daughter, Barbara—filed a lawsuit against the university for exposing them to radiation.

According to the NY Times, “Mrs. Craft, 72, said at a Senate hearing on Jan. 25 that the experiments caused the cancer death of her 11-year-old daughter, Carolyn, in 1959.”

The other women reported symptoms and ailments that coincide with radiation poisoning.

Vanderbilt spokesman Wayne Wood told the Washington Post that all of the files were destroyed by the research team in the 1970s.

The researchers who were working on that maintained their own files. They were not Vanderbilt property. They belonged to the researchers themselves,” Wood said.

Dr. Joseph C. Ross, Vanderbilt’s associate vice chancellor for health affairs, admitted that this study would be unethical today, but still attempted to play damage control.

While it would not be acceptable today to give radioactive isotopes to pregnant women. it is also clear that this was carefully evaluated at the time, and there was a feeling then it was safe. We want to be as helpful as we can, but to create the feeling that we’ve done something wrong, we don’t want to do that,” Ross said.

Oddly enough, Vanderbilt University claimed that their studies had no adverse effects on the test subjects. However, the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, which oversaw the Vanderbilt investigation, claimed that the studies did, in fact, have an extremely negative impact.

The Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments stated in their report that:

“A higher number of malignancies among the exposed offspring (four cases in the exposed group: acute lymphatic leukemia, synovial sarcoma, lymphosarcoma, and primary liver carcinoma, which was discounted as a rare, familial form of cancer). No cases were found in a control group of similar size…This led the researchers to conclude that the data suggested a causal relationship between the prenatal exposure to Fe-59 and cancer. The investigators also concluded that Dr. Hahn’s estimate of fetal exposure was an underestimation of the fetal-absorbed dose.”

The Advisory Committee discovered that at least 27 experiments exposed pregnant women and their babies to radiation between 1944–1974.


Bill Clinton - Apology To Human-Experiment Victims
https://youtu.be/KRTOB8JPwa8

TORTURE AND MEDICAL EXPERIMENTATION ON HUMANS IN THE U.S. -- THE SHOCKING TRUE HISTORY OF (((MEDICINE AND PSYCHIATRY)))



Source Article:
Human medical experimentation in the United States: The shocking true history of modern medicine and psychiatry (1833-1965)
https://www.naturalnews.com/019189_human_medical_experimentation_ethics.html


Introduction by the Health Ranger: The United States claims to be the world leader in medicine. But there's a dark side to western medicine that few want to acknowledge: The horrifying medical experiments performed on impoverished people and their children all in the name of scientific progress. Many of these medical experiments were conducted on people without their knowledge, and most were conducted as part of an effort to seek profits from newly approved drugs or medical technologies.

Today, the medical experiments continue on the U.S. population and its children. From the mass drugging of children diagnosed with fictitious behavioral disorders invented by psychiatry to the FDA's approval of mass-marketed drugs that have undergone no legitimate clinical trials, our population is right now being subjected to medical experiments on a staggering scale. Today, nearly 50% of Americans are on a least one prescription drug, and nearly 20% of schoolchildren are on mind-altering amphetamines like Ritalin or antidepressants like Prozac. This mass medication of our nation is, in every way, a grand medical experiment taking place right now.

But to truly understand how this mass experimentation on modern Americans came into being, you have to take a close look at the horrifying history of conventional medicine's exploitation of people for cruel medical experiments.

WARNING: What you are about to read is truly shocking. You have never been told this information by the American Medical Association, nor drug companies, nor the evening news. You were never taught the truth about conventional medicine in public school, or even at any university. This is the dark secret of the U.S. system of medicine, and once you read the true accounts reported here, you may never trust drug companies again. These images are deeply disturbing. We print them here not as a form of entertainment, but as a stern warning against what might happen to us and our children if we do not rein in the horrifying, inhumane actions of Big Pharma and modern-day psychiatry.

Now, I introduce this shocking timeline, researched and authored by Dani Veracity, one of our many talented staff writers here at Truth Publishing.

Read at your own risk. - The Health Ranger

The true U.S. history of human medical experimentation

Human experimentation -- that is, subjecting live human beings to science experiments that are sometimes cruel, sometimes painful, sometimes deadly and always a risk -- is a major part of U.S. history that you won't find in most history or science books. The United States is undoubtedly responsible for some of the most amazing scientific breakthroughs. These advancements, especially in the field of medicine, have changed the lives of billions of people around the world -- sometimes for the better, as in the case of finding a cure for malaria and other epidemic diseases, and sometimes for the worse (consider modern "psychiatry" and the drugging of schoolchildren).

However, these breakthroughs come with a hefty price tag: The human beings used in the experiments that made these advancements possible. Over the last two centuries, some of these test subjects have been compensated for the damage done to their emotional and physical health, but most have not. Many have lost their lives because of the experiments they often unwillingly and sometimes even unwittingly participated in, and they of course can never be compensated for losing their most precious possession of all: Their health.

As you read through these science experiments, you'll learn the stories of newborns injected with radioactive substances, mentally ill people placed in giant refrigerators, military personnel exposed to chemical weapons by the very government they served and mentally challenged children being purposely infected with hepatitis. These stories are facts, not fiction: Each account, no matter how horrifying, is backed up with a link or citation to a reputable source.

These stories must be heard because human experimentation is still going on today. The reasons behind the experiments may be different, but the usual human guinea pigs are still the same -- members of minority groups, the poor and the disadvantaged. These are the lives that were put on the line in the name of "scientific" medicine.

(1833)

Dr. William Beaumont, an army surgeon physician, pioneers gastric medicine with his study of a patient with a permanently open gunshot wound to the abdomen and writes a human medical experimentation code that asserts the importance of experimental treatments, but also lists requirements stipulating that human subjects must give voluntary, informed consent and be able to end the experiment when they want. Beaumont's Code lists verbal, rather than just written, consent as permissible (Berdon).

(1845)

(1845 - 1849) J. Marion Sims, later hailed as the "father of gynecology," performs medical experiments on enslaved African women without anesthesia. These women would usually die of infection soon after surgery. Based on his belief that the movement of newborns' skull bones during protracted births causes trismus, he also uses a shoemaker's awl, a pointed tool shoemakers use to make holes in leather, to practice moving the skull bones of babies born to enslaved mothers (Brinker).

(1895)

New York pediatrician Henry Heiman infects a 4-year-old boy whom he calls "an idiot with chronic epilepsy" with gonorrhea as part of a medical experiment ("Human Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After").

(1896)

Dr. Arthur Wentworth turns 29 children at Boston's Children's Hospital into human guinea pigs when he performs spinal taps on them, just to test whether the procedure is harmful (Sharav).

(1900)

U.S Army doctors working in the Philippines infect five Filipino prisoners with plague and withhold proper nutrition to create Beriberi in 29 prisoners; four test subjects die (Merritte, et al.; Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

Under commission from the U.S. surgeon general, Dr. Walter Reed goes to Cuba and uses 22 Spanish immigrant workers to prove that yellow fever is contracted through mosquito bites. Doing so, he introduces the practice of using healthy test subjects, and also the concept of a written contract to confirm informed consent of these subjects. While doing this study, Dr. Reed clearly tells the subjects that, though he will do everything he can to help them, they may die as a result of the experiment. He pays them $100 in gold for their participation, plus $100 extra if they contract yellow fever (Berdon, Sharav).

(1906)

Harvard professor Dr. Richard Strong infects prisoners in the Philippines with cholera to study the disease; 13 of them die. He compensates survivors with cigars and cigarettes. During the Nuremberg Trials, Nazi doctors cite this study to justify their own medical experiments (Greger, Sharav).

(1911)

Dr. Hideyo Noguchi of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research publishes data on injecting an inactive syphilis preparation into the skin of 146 hospital patients and normal children in an attempt to develop a skin test for syphilis. Later, in 1913, several of these children's parents sue Dr. Noguchi for allegedly infecting their children with syphilis ("Reviews and Notes: History of Medicine: Subjected to Science: Human Experimentation in America before the Second World War").

(1913)

Medical experimenters "test" 15 children at the children's home St. Vincent's House in Philadelphia with tuberculin, resulting in permanent blindness in some of the children. Though the Pennsylvania House of Representatives records the incident, the researchers are not punished for the experiments ("Human Experimentation: Before the Nazi Era and After").

(1915)

Dr. Joseph Goldberger, under order of the U.S. Public Health Office, produces Pellagra, a debilitating disease that affects the central nervous system, in 12 Mississippi inmates to try to find a cure for the disease. One test subject later says that he had been through "a thousand hells." In 1935, after millions die from the disease, the director of the U.S Public Health Office would finally admit that officials had known that it was caused by a niacin deficiency for some time, but did nothing about it because it mostly affected poor African-Americans. During the Nuremberg Trials, Nazi doctors used this study to try to justify their medical experiments on concentration camp inmates (Greger; Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

(1918)

In response to the Germans' use of chemical weapons during World War I, President Wilson creates the Chemical Warfare Service (CWS) as a branch of the U.S. Army. Twenty-four years later, in 1942, the CWS would begin performing mustard gas and lewisite experiments on over 4,000 members of the armed forces (Global Security, Goliszek).

(1919)

(1919 - 1922) Researchers perform testicular transplant experiments on inmates at San Quentin State Prison in California, inserting the testicles of recently executed inmates and goats into the abdomens and scrotums of living prisoners (Greger).

(1931)

Cornelius Rhoads, a pathologist from the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, purposely infects human test subjects in Puerto Rico with cancer cells; 13 of them die. Though a Puerto Rican doctor later discovers that Rhoads purposely covered up some of details of his experiment and Rhoads himself gives a written testimony stating he believes that all Puerto Ricans should be killed, he later goes on to establish the U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah and Panama, and is named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, where he begins a series of radiation exposure experiments on American soldiers and civilian hospital patients (Sharav; Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

(1931 - 1933) Mental patients at Elgin State Hospital in Illinois are injected with radium-266 as an experimental therapy for mental illness (Goliszek).

(1932)

(1932-1972) The U.S. Public Health Service in Tuskegee, Ala. diagnoses 400 poor, black sharecroppers with syphilis but never tells them of their illness nor treats them; instead researchers use the men as human guinea pigs to follow the symptoms and progression of the disease. They all eventually die from syphilis and their families are never told that they could have been treated (Goliszek, University of Virginia Health System Health Sciences Library).

(1937)

Scientists at Cornell University Medical School publish an angina drug study that uses both placebo and blind assessment techniques on human test subjects. They discover that the subjects given the placebo experienced more of an improvement in symptoms than those who were given the actual drug. This is first account of the placebo effect published in the United States ("Placebo Effect").

(1939)

In order to test his theory on the roots of stuttering, prominent speech pathologist Dr. Wendell Johnson performs his famous "Monster Experiment" on 22 children at the Iowa Soldiers' Orphans' Home in Davenport. Dr. Johnson and his graduate students put the children under intense psychological pressure, causing them to switch from speaking normally to stuttering heavily. At the time, some of the students reportedly warn Dr. Johnson that, "in the aftermath of World War II, observers might draw comparisons to Nazi experiments on human subjects, which could destroy his career" (Alliance for Human Research Protection).

(1941)

Dr. William C. Black infects a 12-month-old baby with herpes as part of a medical experiment. At the time, the editor of the Journal of Experimental Medicine, Francis Payton Rous, calls it "an abuse of power, an infringement of the rights of an individual, and not excusable because the illness which followed had implications for science" (Sharav).

An article in a 1941 issue of Archives of Pediatrics describes medical studies of the severe gum disease Vincent's angina in which doctors transmit the disease from sick children to healthy children with oral swabs (Goliszek).

Drs. Francis and Salk and other researchers at the University of Michigan spray large amounts of wild influenza virus directly into the nasal passages of "volunteers" from mental institutions in Michigan. The test subjects develop influenza within a very short period of time (Meiklejohn).

Researchers give 800 poverty-stricken pregnant women at a Vanderbilt University prenatal clinic "cocktails" including radioactive iron in order to determine the iron requirements of pregnant women (Pacchioli).

(1942)

The United States creates Fort Detrick, a 92-acre facility, employing nearly 500 scientists working to create biological weapons and develop defensive measures against them. Fort Detrick's main objectives include investigating whether diseases are transmitted by inhalation, digestion or through skin absorption; of course, these biological warfare experiments heavily relied on the use of human subjects (Goliszek).

U.S. Army and Navy doctors infect 400 prison inmates in Chicago with malaria to study the disease and hopefully develop a treatment for it. The prisoners are told that they are helping the war effort, but not that they are going to be infected with malaria. During Nuremberg Trials, Nazi doctors later cite this American study to defend their own medical experiments in concentration camps like Auschwitz (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

The Chemical Warfare Service begins mustard gas and lewisite experiments on 4,000 members of the U.S. military. Some test subjects don't realize they are volunteering for chemical exposure experiments, like 17-year-old Nathan Schnurman, who in 1944 thinks he is only volunteering to test "U.S. Navy summer clothes" (Goliszek).

In an experiment sponsored by the U.S. Navy, Harvard biochemist Edward Cohn injects 64 inmates of Massachusetts state prisons with cow's blood (Sharav).

Merck Pharmaceuticals President George Merck is named director of the War Research Service (WRS), an agency designed to oversee the establishment of a biological warfare program (Goliszek).

(1943)

In order to "study the effect of frigid temperature on mental disorders," researchers at University of Cincinnati Hospital keep 16 mentally disabled patients in refrigerated cabinets for 120 hours at 30 degrees Fahrenheit (Sharav).

(1944)

As part of the Manhattan Project that would eventually create the atomic bomb, researchers inject 4.7 micrograms of plutonium into soldiers at the Oak Ridge facility, 20 miles west of Knoxville, Tenn. ("Manhattan Project: Oak Ridge").

Captain A. W. Frisch, an experienced microbiologist, begins experiments on four volunteers from the state prison at Dearborn, Mich., inoculating prisoners with hepatitis-infected specimens obtained in North Africa. One prisoner dies; two others develop hepatitis but live; the fourth develops symptoms but does not actually develop the disease (Meiklejohn).

Laboratory workers at the University of Minnesota and University of Chicago inject human test subjects with phosphorus-32 to learn the metabolism of hemoglobin (Goliszek).

(1944 - 1946) In order to quickly develop a cure for malaria -- a disease hindering Allied success in World War II -- University of Chicago Medical School professor Dr. Alf Alving infects psychotic patients at Illinois State Hospital with the disease through blood transfusions and then experiments malaria cures on them (Sharav).

A captain in the medical corps addresses an April 1944 memo to Col. Stanford Warren, head of the Manhattan Project's Medical Section, expressing his concerns about atom bomb component fluoride's central nervous system (CNS) effects and asking for animal research to be done to determine the extent of these effects: "Clinical evidence suggests that uranium hexafluoride may have a rather marked central nervous system effect ... It seems most likely that the F [code for fluoride] component rather than the T [code for uranium] is the causative factor ... Since work with these compounds is essential, it will be necessary to know in advance what mental effects may occur after exposure." The following year, the Manhattan Project would begin human-based studies on fluoride's effects (Griffiths and Bryson).

The Manhattan Project medical team, led by the now infamous University of Rochester radiologist Col. Safford Warren, injects plutonium into patients at the University's teaching hospital, Strong Memorial (Burton Report).

(1945)

Continuing the Manhattan Project, researchers inject plutonium into three patients at the University of Chicago's Billings Hospital (Sharav).

The U.S. State Department, Army intelligence and the CIA begin Operation Paperclip, offering Nazi scientists immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top-secret government projects on aerodynamics and chemical warfare medicine in the United States ("Project Paperclip").

Researchers infect 800 prisoners in Atlanta with malaria to study the disease (Sharav).

(1945 - 1955) In Newburgh, N.Y., researchers linked to the Manhattan Project begin the most extensive American study ever done on the health effects of fluoridating public drinking water (Griffiths and Bryson).

(1946)

Gen. Douglas MacArthur strikes a secret deal with Japanese physician Dr. Shiro Ishii to turn over 10,000 pages of information gathered from human experimentation in exchange for granting Ishii immunity from prosecution for the horrific experiments he performed on Chinese, Russian and American war prisoners, including performing vivisections on live human beings (Goliszek, Sharav).

Male and female test subjects at Chicago's Argonne National Laboratories are given intravenous injections of arsenic-76 so that researchers can study how the human body absorbs, distributes and excretes arsenic (Goliszek).

Continuing the Newburg study of 1945, the Manhattan Project commissions the University of Rochester to study fluoride's effects on animals and humans in a project codenamed "Program F." With the help of the New York State Health Department, Program F researchers secretly collect and analyze blood and tissue samples from Newburg residents. The studies are sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission and take place at the University of Rochester Medical Center's Strong Memorial Hospital (Griffiths and Bryson).

(1946 - 1947) University of Rochester researchers inject four male and two female human test subjects with uranium-234 and uranium-235 in dosages ranging from 6.4 to 70.7 micrograms per one kilogram of body weight in order to study how much uranium they could tolerate before their kidneys become damaged (Goliszek).

Six male employees of a Chicago metallurgical laboratory are given water contaminated with plutonium-239 to drink so that researchers can learn how plutonium is absorbed into the digestive tract (Goliszek).

Researchers begin using patients in VA hospitals as test subjects for human medical experiments, cleverly worded as "investigations" or "observations" in medical study reports to avoid negative connotations and bad publicity (Sharav).

The American public finally learns of the biowarfare experiments being done at Fort Detrick from a report released by the War Department (Goliszek).

(1946 - 1953) The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission sponsors studies in which researchers from Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital and the Boston University School of Medicine feed mentally disabled students at Fernald State School Quaker Oats breakfast cereal spiked with radioactive tracers every morning so that nutritionists can study how preservatives move through the human body and if they block the absorption of vitamins and minerals. Later, MIT researchers conduct the same study at Wrentham State School (Sharav, Goliszek).

Human test subjects are given one to four injections of arsenic-76 at the University of Chicago Department of Medicine. Researchers take tissue biopsies from the subjects before and after the injections (Goliszek).

(1947)

Col. E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) issues a top-secret document (707075) dated Jan. 8. In it, he writes that "certain radioactive substances are being prepared for intravenous administration to human subjects as a part of the work of the contract" (Goliszek).

A secret AEC document dated April 17 reads, "It is desired that no document be released which refers to experiments with humans that might have an adverse reaction on public opinion or result in legal suits," revealing that the U.S. government was aware of the health risks its nuclear tests posed to military personnel conducting the tests or nearby civilians (Goliszek).

The CIA begins studying LSD's potential as a weapon by using military and civilian test subjects for experiments without their consent or even knowledge. Eventually, these LSD studies will evolve into the MKULTRA program in 1953 (Sharav).

(1947 - 1953) The U.S. Navy begins Project Chatter to identify and test so-called "truth serums," such as those used by the Soviet Union to interrogate spies. Mescaline and the central nervous system depressant scopolamine are among the many drugs tested on human subjects (Goliszek).

(1948)

Based on the secret studies performed on Newburgh, N.Y. residents beginning in 1945, Project F researchers publish a report in the August 1948 edition of the Journal of the American Dental Association, detailing fluoride's health dangers. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) quickly censors it for "national security" reasons (Griffiths and Bryson).

(1950)

(1950 - 1953) The CIA and later the Office of Scientific Intelligence begin Project Bluebird (renamed Project Artichoke in 1951) in order to find ways to "extract" information from CIA agents, control individuals "through special interrogation techniques," "enhance memory" and use "unconventional techniques, including hypnosis and drugs" for offensive measures (Goliszek).

(1950 - 1953) The U.S. Army releases chemical clouds over six American and Canadian cities. Residents in Winnipeg, Canada, where a highly toxic chemical called cadmium is dropped, subsequently experience high rates of respiratory illnesses (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

In order to determine how susceptible an American city could be to biological attack, the U.S. Navy sprays a cloud of Bacillus globigii bacteria from ships over the San Francisco shoreline. According to monitoring devices situated throughout the city to test the extent of infection, the eight thousand residents of San Francisco inhale five thousand or more bacteria particles, many becoming sick with pneumonia-like symptoms (Goliszek).

Dr. Joseph Strokes of the University of Pennsylvania infects 200 female prisoners with viral hepatitis to study the disease (Sharav).

Doctors at the Cleveland City Hospital study changes in cerebral blood flow by injecting test subjects with spinal anesthesia, inserting needles in their jugular veins and brachial arteries, tilting their heads down and, after massive blood loss causes paralysis and fainting, measuring their blood pressure. They often perform this experiment multiple times on the same subject (Goliszek).

Dr. D. Ewen Cameron, later of MKULTRA infamy due to his 1957 to1964 experiments on Canadians, publishes an article in the British Journal of Physical Medicine, in which he describes experiments that entail forcing schizophrenic patients at Manitoba's Brandon Mental Hospital to lie naked under 15- to 200-watt red lamps for up to eight hours per day. His other experiments include placing mental patients in an electric cage that overheats their internal body temperatures to 103 degrees Fahrenheit, and inducing comas by giving patients large injections of insulin (Goliszek).

(1951)

The U.S. Navy's Project Bluebird is renamed Project Artichoke and begins human medical experiments that test the effectiveness of LSD, sodium pentothal and hypnosis for the interrogative purposes described in Project Bluebird's objectives (1950) (Goliszek).

The U.S. Army secretly contaminates the Norfolk Naval Supply Center in Virginia and Washington, D.C.'s National Airport with a strain of bacteria chosen because African-Americans were believed to be more susceptible to it than Caucasians. The experiment causes food poisoning, respiratory problems and blood poisoning (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

(1951 - 1952) Researchers withhold insulin from diabetic patients for up to two days in order to observe the effects of diabetes; some test subjects go into diabetic comas (Goliszek).

(1951 - 1956) Under contract with the Air Force's School of Aviation Medicine (SAM), the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston begins studying the effects of radiation on cancer patients -- many of them members of minority groups or indigents, according to sources -- in order to determine both radiation's ability to treat cancer and the possible long-term radiation effects of pilots flying nuclear-powered planes. The study lasts until 1956, involving 263 cancer patients. Beginning in 1953, the subjects are required to sign a waiver form, but it still does not meet the informed consent guidelines established by the Wilson memo released that year. The TBI studies themselves would continue at four different institutions -- Baylor University College of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, the U.S. Naval Hospital in Bethesda and the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine -- until 1971 (U.S. Department of Energy, Goliszek).

American, Canadian and British military and intelligence officials gather a small group of eminent psychologists to a secret meeting at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Montreal about Communist "thought-control techniques." They proposed a top-secret research program on behavior modification -- involving testing drugs, hypnosis, electroshock and lobotomies on humans (Barker).

(1952)

Military scientists use the Dugway Proving Ground -- which is located 87 miles southwest of Salt Lake City, Utah -- in a series of experiments to determine how Brucella suis and Brucella melitensis spread in human populations. Today, over a half-century later, some experts claim that we are all infected with these agents as a result of these experiments (Goliszek).

In a U.S. Department of Denfense-sponsored experiment, Henry Blauer dies after he is injected with mescaline at Columbia University's New York State Psychiatric Institute (Sharav).

At the famous Sloan-Kettering Institute, Chester M. Southam injects live cancer cells into prisoners at the Ohio State Prison to study the progression of the disease. Half of the prisoners in this National Institutes of Health-sponsored (NIH) study are black, awakening racial suspicions stemming from Tuskegee, which was also an NIH-sponsored study (Merritte, et al.).

(1953)

(1953 - 1970) The CIA begins project MKNAOMI to "stockpile incapacitating and lethal materials, to develop gadgetry for the disseminations of these materials, and to test the effects of certain drugs on animals and humans." As part of MKNAOMI, the CIA and the Special Operations Division of the Army Biological Laboratory at Fort Detrick try to develop two suicide pill alternatives to the standard cyanide suicide pill given to CIA agents and U-2 pilots. CIA agents and U-2 pilots are meant to take these pills when they find themselves in situations in which they (and all the information they hold in their brains) are in enemy hands. They also develop a "microbioinoculator" -- a device that agents can use to fire small darts coated with biological agents that can remain potent for weeks or even months. These darts can be fired through clothing and, most significantly, are undetectable during autopsy. Eventually, by the late 1960s, MKNAOMI enables the CIA to have a stockpile of biological toxins -- infectious viruses, paralytic shellfish toxin, lethal botulism toxin, snake venom and the severe skin disease-producing agent Mircosporum gypseum. Of course, the development of all of this "gadgetry" requires human experimentation (Goliszek).

(1953 - 1974) CIA Director Allen Dulles authorizes the MKULTRA program to produce and test drugs and biological agents that the CIA could use for mind control and behavior modification. MKULTRA later becomes well known for its pioneering studies on LSD, which are often performed on prisoners or patrons of brothels set up and run by the CIA. The brothel experiments, known as "Operation Midnight Climax," feature two-way mirrors set up in the brothels so that CIA agents can observe LSD's effects on sexual behavior. Ironically, governmental figures sometimes slip LSD into each other's drinks as part of the program, resulting in the LSD psychosis-induced suicide of Dr. Frank Olson indirectly at the hands of MKULTRA's infamous key player Dr. Sidney Gottlieb. Of all the hundreds of human test subjects used during MKULTRA, only 14 are ever notified of the involvement and only one is ever compensated ($15,000). Most of the MKULTRA files are eventually destroyed in 1973 (Elliston; Merritte, et al.; Barker).

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) sponsors iodine studies at the University of Iowa. In the first study, researchers give pregnant women 100 to 200 microcuries of iodine-131 and then study the women's aborted embryos in order to learn at what stage and to what extent radioactive iodine crosses the placental barrier. In the second study, researchers give 12 male and 13 female newborns under 36 hours old and weighing between 5.5 and 8.5 pounds iodine-131 either orally or via intramuscular injection, later measuring the concentration of iodine in the newborns' thyroid glands (Goliszek).

Secretary of Defense Charles Wilson issues the Wilson memo, a top-secret document establishing the Nuremberg Code as Department of Defense policy on human experimentation. The Wilson memo requires voluntary, written consent from a human medical research subject after he or she has been informed of "the nature, duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and means by which it is to be conducted; all inconveniences and hazards reasonably to be expected; and effects upon his health or person which may possibly come from his participation in the experiment." It also insists that doctors only use experimental treatments when other methods have failed (Berdon).

As part of an AEC study, researchers feed 28 healthy infants at the University of Nebraska College of Medicine iodine-131 through a gastric tube and then test concentration of iodine in the infants' thyroid glands 24 hours later (Goliszek).

(1953 - 1957) Eleven patients at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston are injected with uranium as part of the Manhattan Project (Sharav).

In an AEC-sponsored study at the University of Tennessee, researchers inject healthy two- to three-day-old newborns with approximately 60 rads of iodine-131 (Goliszek).

Newborn Daniel Burton becomes blind when physicians at Brooklyn Doctors Hospital perform an experimental high oxygen treatment for Retrolental Fibroplasia, a retinal disorder affecting premature infants, on him and other premature babies. The physicians perform the experimental treatment despite earlier studies showing that high oxygen levels cause blindness. Testimony in Burton v. Brooklyn Doctors Hospital (452 N.Y.S.2d875) later reveals that researchers continued to give Burton and other infants excess oxygen even after their eyes had swelled to dangerous levels (Goliszek, Sharav).

The CIA begins Project MKDELTA to study the use of biochemicals "for harassment, discrediting and disabling purposes" (Goliszek).

A 1953 article in Clinical Science describes a medical experiment in which researchers purposely blister the abdomens of 41 children, ranging in age from eight to 14, with cantharide in order to study how severely the substance irritates the skin (Goliszek).

The AEC performs a series of field tests known as "Green Run," dropping radiodine 131 and xenon 133 over the Hanford, Wash. site -- 500,000 acres encompassing three small towns (Hanford, White Bluffs and Richland) along the Columbia River (Sharav).

In an AEC-sponsored study to learn whether radioactive iodine affects premature babies differently from full-term babies, researchers at Harper Hospital in Detroit give oral doses of iodine-131 to 65 premature and full-term infants weighing between 2.1 and 5.5 pounds (Goliszek).

(1954)

The CIA begins Project QKHILLTOP to study Chinese Communist Party brainwashing techniques and use them to further the CIA's own interrogative methods. Most experts speculate that the Cornell University Medical School Human Ecology Studies Program conducted Project QKHILLTOP's early experiments (Goliszek).

(1954 - 1975) U.S. Air Force medical officers assigned to Fort Detrick's Chemical Corps Biological Laboratory begin Operation Whitecoat -- experiments involving exposing human test subjects to hepatitis A, plague, yellow fever, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, rickettsia and intestinal microbes. These test subjects include 2,300 Seventh Day Adventist military personnel, who choose to become human guinea pigs rather than potentially kill others in combat. Only two of the 2,300 claim long-term medical complications from participating in the study ("Operation Whitecoat".)

In a general memo to university researchers under contract with the military, the Surgeon General of the U.S. Army asserts the human experimentation guidelines -- including informed, written consent -- established in the classified Wilson memo (Goliszek).

(1955)

In U.S. Army-sponsored experiments performed at Tulane University, mental patients are given LSD and other drugs and then have electrodes implanted in their brain to measure the levels (Barker, "The Cold War Experiments").

(1955 - 1957) In order to learn how cold weather affects human physiology, researchers give a total of 200 doses of iodine-131, a radioactive tracer that concentrates almost immediately in the thyroid gland, to 85 healthy Eskimos and 17 Athapascan Indians living in Alaska. They study the tracer within the body by blood, thyroid tissue, urine and saliva samples from the test subjects. Due to the language barrier, no one tells the test subjects what is being done to them, so there is no informed consent (Goliszek).

(1955 - 1965) As a result of their work with the CIA's mind control experiments in Project QKHILLTOP, Cornell neurologists Harold Wolff and Lawrence Hinkle begin the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology (later renamed the Human Ecology Fund) to study "man's relation to his social environment as perceived by him" (Goliszek).

(1956)

(1956 - 1957) U.S. Army covert biological weapons researchers release mosquitoes infected with yellow fever and dengue fever over Savannah, Ga., and Avon Park, Fla., to test the insects' ability to carry disease. After each test, Army agents pose as public health officials to test victims for effects and take pictures of the unwitting test subjects. These experiments result in a high incidence of fevers, respiratory distress, stillbirths, encephalitis and typhoid among the two cities' residents, as well as several deaths (Cockburn and St. Clair, eds.).

(1957)

The U.S. military conducts Operation Plumbbob at the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Operation Pumbbob consists of 29 nuclear detonations, eventually creating radiation expected to result in a total 32,000 cases of thyroid cancer among civilians in the area. Around 18,000 members of the U.S. military participate in Operation Pumbbob's Desert Rock VII and VIII, which are designed to see how the average foot soldier physiologically and mentally responds to a nuclear battlefield ("Operation Plumbbob", Goliszek).

(1957 - 1964) As part of MKULTRA, the CIA pays McGill University Department of Psychiatry founder Dr. D. Ewen Cameron $69,000 to perform LSD studies and potentially lethal experiments on Canadians being treated for minor disorders like post-partum depression and anxiety at the Allan Memorial Institute, which houses the Psychiatry Department of the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal. The CIA encourages Dr. Cameron to fully explore his "psychic driving" concept of correcting madness through completely erasing one's memory and rewriting the psyche. These "driving" experiments involve putting human test subjects into drug-, electroshock- and sensory deprivation-induced vegetative states for up to three months, and then playing tape loops of noise or simple repetitive statements for weeks or months in order to "rewrite" the "erased" psyche. Dr. Cameron also gives human test subjects paralytic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy 30 to 40 times, as part of his experiments. Most of Dr. Cameron's test subjects suffer permanent damage as a result of his work (Goliszek, "Donald Ewan Cameron").

In order to study how blood flows through children's brains, researchers at Children's Hospital in Philadelphia perform the following experiment on healthy children, ranging in age from three to 11: They insert needles into each child's femoral artery (thigh) and jugular vein (neck), bringing the blood down from the brain. Then, they force each child to inhale a special gas through a facemask. In their subsequent Journal of Clinical Investigation article on this study, the researchers note that, in order to perform the experiment, they had to restrain some of the child test subjects by bandaging them to boards (Goliszek).

(1958)

Approximately 300 members of the U.S. Navy are exposed to radiation when the Navy destroyer Mansfield detonates 30 nuclear bombs off the coasts of Pacific Islands during Operation Hardtack (Goliszek).

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) drops radioactive materials over Point Hope, Alaska, home to the Inupiats, in a field test known under the codename "Project Chariot" (Sharav).

(1961)

In response to the Nuremberg Trials, Yale psychologist Stanley Milgram begins his famous Obedience to Authority Study in order to answer his question "Could it be that (Adolf) Eichmann and his million accomplices in the Holocaust were just following orders? Could we call them all accomplices?" Male test subjects, ranging in age from 20 to 40 and coming from all education backgrounds, are told to give "learners" electric shocks for every wrong answer the learners give in response to word pair questions. In reality, the learners are actors and are not receiving electric shocks, but what matters is that the test subjects do not know that. Astoundingly, they keep on following orders and continue to administer increasingly high levels of "shocks," even after the actor learners show obvious physical pain ("Milgram Experiment").

(1962)

Researchers at the Laurel Children's Center in Maryland test experimental acne antibiotics on children and continue their tests even after half of the young test subjects develop severe liver damage because of the experimental medication (Goliszek). The U.S. Army's Deseret Test Center begins Project 112. This includes SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense), which exposes U.S. Navy and Army personnel to live toxins and chemical poisons in order to determine naval ships' vulnerability to chemical and biological weapons. Military personnel are not test subjects; conducting the tests exposes them. Many of these participants complain of negative health effects at the time and, decades later, suffer from severe medical problems as a result of their exposure (Goliszek, Veterans Health Administration).

The FDA begins requiring that a new pharmaceutical undergo three human clinical trials before it will approve it. From 1962 to 1980, pharmaceutical companies satisfy this requirement by running Phase I trials, which determine a drug's toxicity, on prison inmates, giving them small amounts of cash for compensation (Sharav).

(1963)

Chester M. Southam, who injected Ohio State Prison inmates with live cancer cells in 1952, performs the same procedure on 22 senile, African-American female patients at the Brooklyn Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital in order to watch their immunological response. Southam tells the patients that they are receiving "some cells," but leaves out the fact that they are cancer cells. He claims he doesn't obtain informed consent from the patients because he does not want to frighten them by telling them what he is doing, but he nevertheless temporarily loses his medical license because of it. Ironically, he eventually becomes president of the American Cancer Society (Greger, Merritte, et al.).

Researchers at the University of Washington directly irradiate the testes of 232 prison inmates in order to determine radiation's effects on testicular function. When these inmates later leave prison and have children, at least four have babies born with birth defects. The exact number is unknown because researchers never follow up on the men to see the long-term effects of their experiment (Goliszek).

In a National Institutes of Health-sponsored (NIH) study, a researcher transplants a chimpanzee's kidney into a human. The experiment fails (Sharav).

(1963 - 1966) New York University researcher Saul Krugman promises parents with mentally disabled children definite enrollment into the Willowbrook State School in Staten Island, N.Y., a resident mental institution for mentally retarded children, in exchange for their signatures on a consent form for procedures presented as "vaccinations." In reality, the procedures involve deliberately infecting children with viral hepatitis by feeding them an extract made from the feces of infected patients, so that Krugman can study the course of viral hepatitis as well the effectiveness of a hepatitis vaccine (Hammer Breslow).

(1963 - 1971) Leading endocrinologist Dr. Carl Heller gives 67 prison inmates at Oregon State Prison in Salem $5 per month and $25 per testicular tissue biopsy in compensation for allowing him to perform irradiation experiments on their testes. If they receive vasectomies at the end of the study, the prisoners are given an extra $100 (Sharav, Goliszek).

Researchers inject a genetic compound called radioactive thymidine into the testicles of more than 100 Oregon State Penitentiary inmates to learn whether sperm production is affected by exposure to steroid hormones (Greger).

In a study published in Pediatrics, researchers at the University of California's Department of Pediatrics use 113 newborns ranging in age from one hour to three days old in a series of experiments used to study changes in blood pressure and blood flow. In one study, doctors insert a catheter through the newborns' umbilical arteries and into their aortas and then immerse the newborns' feet in ice water while recording aortic pressure. In another experiment, doctors strap 50 newborns to a circumcision board, tilt the table so that all the blood rushes to their heads and then measure their blood pressure (Goliszek).

(1964)

(1964 - 1968) The U.S. Army pays $386,486 (the largest sum ever paid for human experimentation) to University of Pennsylvania Professors Albert Kligman and Herbert W. Copelan to run medical experiments on 320 inmates of Holmesburg Prison to determine the effectiveness of seven mind-altering drugs. The researchers' objective is to determine the minimum effective dose of each drug needed to disable 50 percent of any given population (MED-50). Though Professors Kligman and Copelan claim that they are unaware of any long-term effects the mind-altering agents might have on prisoners, documents revealed later would prove otherwise (Kaye).

(1964 - 1967) The Dow Chemical Company pays Professor Kligman $10,000 to learn how dioxin -- a highly toxic, carcinogenic component of Agent Orange -- and other herbicides affect human skin because workers at the chemical plant have been developing an acne-like condition called Chloracne and the company would like to know whether the chemicals they are handling are to blame. As part of the study, Professor Kligman applies roughly the amount of dioxin Dow employees are exposed to on the skin 60 prisoners, and is disappointed when the prisoners show no symptoms of Chloracne. In 1980 and 1981, the human guinea pigs used in this study would begin suing Professor Kligman for complications including lupus and psychological damage (Kaye).

(1965)

The Department of Defense uses human test subjects wearing rubber clothing and M9A1 masks to conduct 35 trials near Fort Greely, Ala., as part of the Elk Hunt tests, which are designed to measure the amount of VX nerve agent put on the clothing of people moving through VX-contaminated areas or touching contaminated vehicles, and the amount of VX vapor rising from these areas. After the tests, the subjects are decontaminated using wet steam and high-pressure cold water (Goliszek).

As part of a test codenamed "Big Tom," the Department of Defense sprays Oahu, Hawaii's most heavily populated island, with Bacillus globigii in order to simulate an attack on an island complex. Bacillus globigii causes infections in people with weakened immune systems, but this was not known to scientists at the time (Goliszek, Martin).

Wednesday, January 17, 2018

PREGNANCY AND SLEEP



Some helpful suggestions if you are having trouble sleeping during pregnancy.

Source Article:
Pregnancy and Sleep
https://www.tuck.com/pregnancy-and-sleep/

If a pregnant woman is ‘eating for two’ whenever she sits down for a meal, then it’s also true that she is ‘sleeping for two’ every time she goes to bed. Pregnancy can significantly reshape the sleep architecture of expecting mothers, often for the worse. Sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome are somewhat commonplace. Furthermore, physical symptoms of pregnancy like cramps and nausea, as well as the general discomfort of carrying a child to term, can greatly exacerbate sleep-related conditions.

Pregnancy in measured in three stages known as trimesters, beginning with the first day of the woman’s last menstrual cycle and ending with the birth of the child roughly 40 weeks later. This guide to pregnancy and sleep will discuss the various sleep developments and concerns that arise during each individual trimester, as well as postpartum sleep issues and the sleep habits of unborn fetuses.

First Trimester

We begin with the first trimester, which spans the first 12 weeks of a standard pregnancy. Within days of fertilization, the fertilized egg will grow into a larger cellular body known as a blastocyst and attach itself to the inner wall of the uterus.

This implantation will trigger a spike in your body’s level of progesterone, a natural hormone that regulates the various stages of your reproductive cycle. Progesterone is considered a soporific hormone, meaning that it can induce early sleep onset. As a result, higher levels of progesterone can lead to both excessive daytime sleepiness and disrupted sleep at night. These feelings of fatigue can be so strong that you may mistake them for cold or flu symptoms, and the hormonal changes may cause you to develop insomnia symptoms. Sleep onset insomnia refers to difficulty falling asleep at normal bed times, while sleep maintenance insomnia is the difficulty remaining asleep. Increased progesterone levels can lead to either type of insomnia.

Additionally, the blastocyst will apply pressure on your uterine wall, which is located near the bladder. This pressure, along with the progesterone boost, will make you feel the need to urinate much more frequently. Nighttime bathroom visits will become part of your routine during the first trimester. Strangely enough, bladder pressure has also been linked to lucid dreams (or vivid dreams) in pregnant women. Both of these factors may impact your ability to remain asleep through the night.

The third through eighth weeks of the first trimester, known as the embryonic stage, are characterized by significant bodily changes for the mother and baby. As its major organs begin to develop, the embryo will grow to up to one inch in length. These adjustments will cause your to experience serious cramping, particularly in the pelvic region, and your breasts will begin swelling as your body prepares for nursing. These aches and pains can easily disrupt your sleep, as well. Additionally, pregnant women in their first trimester often experience excessive nausea, an affliction commonly called morning sickness.

By the ninth week, the embryo will have grown into a fetus, and the uterus will be the size of a large tomato. More cramping, swelling and discomfort typically occur in the four remaining weeks of the trimester.

Here are a few tips for reducing physical pain and getting enough sleep during your first trimester:

Nap frequently to counteract the effects of your rising progesterone levels during the first trimester. Experts suggest napping in the afternoon in order to maintain your nighttime sleep cycle; two catnaps, each lasting between 30 minutes and an hour, are considered more effective than one long nap.

Exercising in the morning can also help you maintain healthy sleep cycle.

Avoid consuming large amounts of fluid in the evening. This should reduce your urge to urinate in the middle of the night.

If you experience morning sickness, try snacking on light, salty foods like popcorn or pretzels.

Second Trimester

The second trimester is the longest, usually lasting from the 13th week to the 27th week. Your experience during the second trimester will largely depend on whether or not this your first pregnancy. First-time mothers often begin to feel the baby move at 18 to 22 weeks, but women who have already given birth may notice these sensations earlier in the trimester. At any rate, the fetus will grow considerably over the course of this trimester; by week 27, the average fetus is 10 inches in length and weighs more than a pound.

The second trimester is considered the best trimester in terms of the mother’s sleep patterns. Your body will be mostly acclimated to the rising progesterone levels, so daytime fatigue and sleep onset problems are usually less prominent. Morning sickness is also uncommon after the first trimester. This is the best time to establish a healthy sleep schedule, you’ll need it during the third trimester.

However, you may encounter some physical symptoms during the second trimester that negatively impact your sleep. Heartburn, for one, is quite common during this period, and lying down can often increase the discomfort of acid reflux. Nocturnal leg cramps can also be an issue, particularly pains in the calf muscles. Although these will probably become more pronounced during the third trimester, cramping often begins during the second. Many pregnant women experience cramping at night, which can lead to sleep disruption. If you’re prone to lucid dreams, then you can expect these to intensify during the second trimester, as well.

Another concern during the second trimester is preeclampsia, a complication characterized by high blood pressure. Preeclampsia symptoms typically begin to materialize after 20 weeks of pregnancy; these symptoms include headaches, light sensitivity, nausea, shortness of breath and decreased urination. Preeclampsia is somewhat rare, but the condition can be fatal for both the mother and the fetus.

Follow these guidelines and you should sleep soundly and remain healthy during the second trimester:

Avoid eating and drinking certain things to ensure these second-trimester symptoms won’t be too severe. Spicy or fried food can lead to heartburn flare-ups, while soft drinks and other carbonated beverages can worsen the effects of leg cramping.

Try to stand or sit upright for at least four hours after eating in order to ease the digestive process and mitigate your heartburn.

If you experience a leg cramp in bed, try flexing your leg and/or foot muscles to relieve the temporary pain.

Consult your physician immediately if you begin to experience symptoms of preeclampsia, or notice a sharp rise in your blood pressure levels.

Third Trimester

Last ‘but definitely not least’ is the third trimester, which begins during the 28th week and lasts until childbirth. The average pregnancy spans 40 weeks in length, but some mothers may deliver their baby as late as week 42 or 43.

The third trimester is a period of extraordinary fetal growth. Unfortunately, these developments can cause major aches and pains for expecting mothers. The majority of pregnant women experience severe lower back pain during the third trimester due to the excess weight around their midsection, and leg cramping may become more intense. Frequent urination spells will also return as the fetus expands and eventually settles in the the lower pelvic region. All of these factors can seriously disrupt sleep routines; the vast majority pregnant women wake up between three and six times each night during their third trimesters. For this reason, the third trimester is considered a more extreme version of the first.

In addition to insomnia brought on by physical discomfort, pregnant women in their third trimester are also prone to other serious sleep disorders. Roughly 20% of pregnant women will experience restless leg syndrome (RLS), a condition characterized by painful tingling or itchy sensations beneath the skin. RLS symptoms can strike at any time, but are most commonly reported at night or after long periods of sitting. RLS has been linked to iron and folate deficiencies, so your doctor may prescribe supplements to alleviate some of the symptoms. However, there is no cure for RLS. The good news: in most cases, RLS symptoms disappear after childbirth.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is another commonly reported sleep disorder among women in their third trimester. OSA occurs when your airway is partially or completely blocked, causing shallow breathing or loss of breath during sleep. Many women snore during pregnancy due to swollen nasal passages, and snoring can quickly evolve into OSA, particularly in women who were obese prior to their pregnancy weight gain. OSA in pregnant mothers is a serious issue because the lost air supply can lead to hormonal surges powerful enough to compromise fetal health. OSA has also been linked to an increased risk for preeclampsia.

During your third trimester, it’s important to prepare for the worst sleep of your pregnancy and make yourself as comfortable as possible leading up to bedtime. Here are a few tips for making it through the third trimester with your body, and sanity, intact.

Reduce fluid intake in the late afternoon or evening.

Make sure to completely empty your bladder during your final urination of the day. Leaning completely forward while peeing can help.

Stay away from anything that irritates your digestive system, and consume plenty of iron-rich foods to help stave off RLS and excessive leg cramping.

Stretching and light exercise before bed can help you fall asleep more quickly.

Sleep on your left side to relieve pressure on your lower back. This will also boost your breathing circulation and help prevent apnea.

For maximum comfort in bed, place pillows between your knees, behind your back and beneath the underside of your stomach.

Postpartum Sleeping

The period immediately following the birth of your child is commonly referred to as the ‘fourth trimester’. The fourth trimester, like the three trimesters of pregnancy, is often characterized by sleep-related issues. However, these issues have less to do with physical changes to your body, and more to do with your newborn’s sleep schedule.

As any new parent will attest, caring for a newborn can be an exhausting task. On average, babies wake up every three to four hours, although this varies considerably from child to child; some newborns will wake up on an hourly basis. Attending to your baby’s needs can quickly take its toll on your mind, body and mood, not to mention sleep schedule. Plan on getting up throughout the night in the weeks and months after your baby is born.

Postpartum depression (PPD) is another important concern during the fourth trimester. PPD is characterized by extreme anxiety and/or depression in mothers who have recently given birth, although roughly half of women diagnosed with PPD begin experiencing symptoms during pregnancy. Crashing progesterone levels and other hormonal changes can lead to PPD, as well as genetic predisposition, stress and other environmental factors. Like any other major stressor, PPD when left untreated can lead to severe insomnia.

Here are a few final tips for getting an adequate amount of sleep during the crucial phase known as the fourth trimester.

Allow your baby to sleep in a crib or bassinet near your bed. This allows you to easily tend to your baby in the middle of the night, rather than getting up and walking to a different area of your home.

Breastfeed if possible. Natural breastfeeding triggers a hormone called prolactin, which can induce sleepiness.

Alternate nighttime duties if you are raising the baby with a partner. This will allow both of you to get more sleep on a weekly basis.

Don’t ignore the early warning signs of postpartum depression. These include sadness, irritability, loss of appetite, inability to concentrate and sleep onset problems. Consult a physician as soon as you begin to experience these symptoms.


Conclusion

During your pregnancy, it is imperative for you to get enough sleep – difficult as that may be at times. You can greatly reduce the risks of insomnia and other sleep disorders by following the guidelines listed above throughout all three trimesters of your pregnancy, as well as the critical fourth trimester period. If you have a newborn or infant at home, check out our Parent’s Guide to Healthy Sleep.

Recommended Resources

General Information

8 Common Pregnancy Sleep Problems (and Solutions): WhatToExpect.org outlines common sleep conditions in pregnant women – such as frequent urination, restless leg syndrome and nasal congestion – as well as some ways to mitigate these problems.

How Pregnancy Affects Your Sleep: Baby Center’s comprehensive guide covers unique concerns, problems and sleep strategies for the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy.

Sleep Positions During Pregnancy: The American Pregnancy Association (APA) pinpoints some of the main reasons why pregnant women lose sleep, and offers some advice for getting comfortable in bed during all three trimesters.

Insomnia During Pregnancy: Snooze, or Lose!: The APA looks at common causes, symptoms and strategies for dealing with insomnia as an expectant mother.

Sleeping for Two: Sleep Changes During Pregnancy: This article from LiveScience takes a scientific approach to the changing sleep patterns women can expect during their pregnancy.


Scientific Studies

Sleep Medicine Review: This 2016 study examines the relationship between sleep during pregnancy and the medical outcomes for both the mother and her fetus.

Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care: For this 2013 study, three researchers from the Tehran University of Medical Sciences looked at quality of life expectations for pregnant women with sleep disorders.

Early Human Development: Researchers at the University of Michigan led this 2015 study to determine the most effective sleep positions for pregnant women throughout all three trimesters.

Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology: This 2010 study explores the impact that exercise and physical activity can have on a pregnant woman’s sleep cycle.

Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: This 2007 study seeks an answer to a long-debated question: should pregnant women sleep on their left side?


Videos

Safe Sleep for Expecting Moms: This video from HealthGuru uses anatomical diagrams to explain why pregnant women should sleep in certain positions.

Pregnancy Sleep Tips: How to Deal with Sleep Apnea During Pregnancy: Dr. Keith Edelman outlines the root causes for sleep apnea during pregnancy, as well as some solutions for women dealing with this condition.

How Pregnant Women Sleep at Night: Missy Lanning highlights insomnia, cramping and other sleep-related ‘bumps along the way’ that women can expect to encounter during their pregnancy.

What to Expect: The extensive archive of DailyMotion user Parenticity includes a different video post dedicated to the physiological challenges mother can expect during each week of their pregnancy.

Is It Safe to Sleep on My Stomach During Pregnancy?: BabyCenter answers this important question with a helpful video tutorial.


Apps

Ovia Pregnancy and Baby Tracker: This monitoring app allows pregnant women to record their own physical changes – including sleep patterns – as well as track fetal growth.

What to Expect: This is the official app of ‘What to Expect When You’re Expecting’, an international parenting bestseller that has grown into one of the country’s leading pregnancy products and services brands.

The Bump: A helpful tool for expecting parents with sleep issues, this comprehensive pregnancy tracker allows users to monitor the weekly growth and development of their fetus.

Calm Childbirth: One of the leading ‘hypnobirthing’ apps, this one is stocked with meditations and soothing music designed to help expecting mothers relax (and sleep) throughout their pregnancy, as well as after delivery.

Noisli: This app is designed to aid with sleep onset through ambient soundtracks that mimic natural sound effects, such as rain, thunder and running water.

EFFECTS OF BREASTFEEDING ON MOTHER AND CHILD MENTAL HEALTH



Source
Neuroscience Shows Breastfeeding Is Not Just Milk
https://womenshealthtoday.blog/2017/02/17/neuroscience-shows-breastfeeding-is-not-just-milk/


Interesting information but of course, never a word is mentioned about what is causing maternal depression -- i.e., medical interference in the birth process, interrupted bonding, and birth trauma. People just like to pretend postpartum depression is a natural part of life. It is not. It is a manufactured disorder orchestrated by those who control the medical system.

Lifelong effects of breastfeeding on mental health

Early life experiences set the stage for physical health in later life. Reducing early toxic stress is key to preventing disease in adults (Shonkoff, 2016).

Breastfeeding is one important way to decrease early toxic stress. Recent studies have shown that breastfeeding increases babies’ physical and mental well-being, and these effects go well beyond the composition of the milk. Maternal responsiveness is key to understanding these long-term effects. When mothers consistently respond to their babies’ cues, they set the stage for lifelong resiliency in their offspring. And responsiveness is built into the breastfeeding relationship. We see this reflected in children’s mental health.

In one study of 2,900 mother-infant pairs, breastfeeding for one year was associated with better child mental health at every age up to age 14 (Oddy et al., 2009). Longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with better child mental health at every assessment point.

Maternal depression

Maternal depression has a well-documented negative effect on babies and children. It is harmful because it impairs mothers’ ability to be responsive to their babies. Depressed mothers tend to disengage from their babies, and fail to respond to their cues. Babies experience this as highly stressful, and there can be lifelong effects from being raised by a chronically depressed mother or father (Field, Diego, & Hernandez-Reif, 2009; Kendall-Tackett, 2002, 2010; Weissman, 2006).

Edward Tronick’s ‘Still-Face Mother’ experiments are an analog of what happens with maternal depression. You can see the effects of not responding in these compelling videos.


still Face experiment
https://youtu.be/Btg9PiT0sZg


These effects are long lasting. A 20-year follow-up of children of depressed parents compared them with a matched group of adult children whose parents had no psychiatric illness. The adult children of depressed parents had three times the rate of major depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse compared to adult children of non-depressed parents.

For many years, feeding method was not included in studies of maternal depression. In fact, for years, professionals who specialized in perinatal mental health believed that breastfeeding was actually a risk factor for postpartum depression. Fortunately, we now have evidence that indicates that exclusively breastfeeding mothers are at lower risk for depression. Indeed, breastfeeding is protective of maternal mental health (Dennis & McQueen, 2009; Groer & Davis, 2006; Kendall-Tackett, Cong, & Hale, 2011).

Sleep

One reason why breastfeeding lowers depression risk is its impact on sleep. On every parameter of sleep, exclusively breastfeeding mothers fare better than their mixed- or formula-feeding counterparts:

- total length of sleep
- minutes to get to sleep
- percentage of slow-wave sleep
- daytime fatigue
- perceived physical health

(Blyton, Sullivan, & Edwards, 2002; Doan, Gardiner, Gay, & Lee, 2007; Kendall-Tackett et al., 2011)

Our study of 6,410 mothers indicated that exclusively breastfeeding mothers were significantly better on every sleep measure compared to their mixed- and formula-feeding counterparts. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference between the mixed- and formula-feeding mothers (Kendall-Tackett et al., 2011). In other words, exclusive breastfeeding is a different physiological experience than mixed feeding. When mothers supplement with formula, they lose the physiological benefit of breastfeeding on their sleep.

Protection and responsivity

maternity-seat-1180161_640One study also found that breastfeeding protects babies when their mothers are depressed. This study compared four groups of mothers: mothers who were either depressed (breast or formula-feeding) or non-depressed (breast or formula-feeding). The measure was the babies’ EEG (electroencephalogram) patterns (abnormal patterns were a symptom of depression in the infants). The babies of depressed, breastfeeding mothers had normal EEG patterns compared to the babies of depressed, formula-feeding mothers (Jones, McFall, & Diego, 2004). In other words, breastfeeding protected the babies from the harmful effects of their mothers’ depression. The reason for this finding comes down to maternal responsivity. The researchers discovered that the depressed, breastfeeding mothers did not disengage from their babies. They couldn’t. The breastfeeding mothers looked at, touched, and made eye contact with their babies more than the mothers who were not breastfeeding. And that was enough to make a difference.

Cycle of violence

Neuroscience-shows-breastfeeding-is-not-just-milkMothers with a history of childhood abuse often feel as though they do not have the tools they need to parent their own children successfully. They may wonder whether they will perpetuate the cycle of violence.

Impaired sleep can be an important trigger to the intergenerational transmission of abuse. Babies of mothers with depression or PTSD are more likely to have sleep difficulties, possibly because of their exposure in utero to their mothers’ elevated stress hormones (Field, Diego, & Hernandez-Reif, 2006; Field et al., 2007). And a recent study found that for women with PTSD and a history of childhood abuse, infant sleep difficulties and maternal depression impaired mother-infant bonding and increased the risk of intergenerational transmission of trauma (Hairston et al., 2011). But there’s a different picture if the mother breastfeeds.

In Strathearn et al’s (2009) 15-year longitudinal study of 7,223 Australian mother-infant pairs, breastfeeding substantially lowered the risk of maternal-perpetrated child maltreatment. Non-breastfeeding mothers were 2.6 times more likely to be physically abusive, and 3.8 times more likely to neglect their children compared to breastfeeding mothers.

The results of our 2013 study may help explain why this is so. In our sample of 6,410 new mothers, 994 women reported previous sexual assault. As predicted, sexual assault had a pervasive, negative effect on mothers’ sleep, physical well-being, and mental health. The sexually assaulted mothers’ sleep was poor, they were more tired, they were more anxious and angry, and had more depression. But when we added feeding method to our analyses, we found that breastfeeding attenuated the effects of sexual assault and downregulated the stress response. This effect was only for exclusively breastfeeding women (Kendall-Tackett, Cong, & Hale, 2013). Anger, in particular, was lessened and this might explain Strathearn’s findings cited above. Also, lower rates of depression improve maternal responsiveness, which is protective.

Attachment and long-term health

We can also examine the impact of security of mother-infant attachment and its effects on long-term health. In an article written shortly before the end of their lives, attachment pioneers Mary Ainsworth and John Bowlby noted that maternal (or caregiver) responsivity was key to creating a secure attachment in infants. Ainsworth developed the primary measure of attachment in infants: The Strange Situation.


The Strange Situation - Mary Ainsworth
https://youtu.be/QTsewNrHUHU


The Strange Situation has been used in thousands of studies all over the world. Secure attachment on this measure is a great predictor of child mental and physical health. And responsiveness is key. When babies are not responded to consistently, they develop insecure attachments, and that has long-term implications for health, as a recent 32-year longitudinal study of 163 people found (Puig, Englund, Simpson, & Collins, 2013). Participants in this study were followed from birth to age 32. At 12 to 18 months, they were assessed via the Strange Situation. Those with insecure attachments had significantly more inflammation-based illnesses at age 32 than those who had secure attachments. These findings are likely due to the chronic activation of the inflammatory response system in those with insecure attachments.

In summary, the results from these studies demonstrate that breastfeeding has a much larger role to play in maintaining physical and mental health than we have previously believed.

Because breastfeeding increases maternal responsivity, it makes the day-to-day experience of mothering more tolerable. And it increases the chances that the babies will be securely attached. Breastfeeding is so much more than just a method of feeding. It’s a way of caring for a baby that will provide a lifetime’s worth of good health because it provides a way for mothers to connect with their babies—even if they did not experience that kind of care themselves.

In short, breastfeeding can make the world a happier and healthier place, one mother and baby at a time. It’s not just the milk.


References

Ainsworth, M. S., & Bowlby, J. (1991). An ethological approach to personality development. American Psychologist, 46(4), 333–341. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.46.4.333

Blyton, D. M., Sullivan, C. E., & Edwards, N. (2002). Lactation is associated with an increase in slow-wave sleep in women. Journal of Sleep Research, 11(4), 297–303. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2869.2002.00315.x

Dennis, C.-L., & McQueen, K. (2009). The relationship between infant-feeding outcomes and postpartum depression: A qualitative systematic review. Pediatrics, 123(4), e736–e751. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-1629

Doan, T., Gardiner, A., Gay, C. L., & Lee, K. A. (2007). Breastfeeding increases sleep duration of new parents. Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 21(3), 200–206. doi:10.1097/01.jpn.0000285809.36398.1b

Field, T., Diego, M., & Hernandez-Reif, M. (2006). Prenatal depression effects on the fetus and newborn: a review. Infant Behavior and Development, 29(3), 445–455. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2006.03.003

Field, T., Diego, M., & Hernandez-Reif, M. (2009). Depressed mothers’ infants are less responsive to faces and voices. Infant Behavior and Development, 32(3), 239–244. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2009.03.005

Field, T., Diego, M., Hernandez-Reif, M., Figueiredo, B., Schanberg, S., & Kuhn, C. (2007). Sleep disturbances in depressed pregnant women and their newborns. Infant Behavior and Development, 30(1), 127–133. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2006.08.002

Groer, M. W., & Davis, M. W. (2006). Cytokines, infections, stress, and dysphoric moods in breastfeeders and formula feeders. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 35(5), 599–607. doi:10.1111/j.1552-6909.2006.00083.x

Hairston, I. S., Waxler, E., Seng, J. S., Fezzey, A. G., Rosenblum, K. L., & Muzik, M. (2011). The role of infant sleep in intergenerational transmission of trauma. Sleep, 34(10), 1373–1383. doi:10.5665/sleep.1282

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Saturday, January 13, 2018

THE SEXUALIZATION OF CHILDREN - WHAT PARENTS NEED TO KNOW (VIDEO)



Interview begins about 5 minutes in. Jeanice Barcelo interviewed by Pastor Butch Paugh about what is happening to the children through hypersexualization in the media and the schools. Topics of discussion include the mind control of parents, the need to homeschool our children, the transgender push, sex-ed in the schools for children as young as 4, the normalizing of pedophilia, the impact of pornography, porn-induced erectile dysfunction in boys under 18, infant circumcision and the impact on the male psyche, and much more.

For more information...
Jeanice's website: www.BirthofaNewEarth.com
Pastor Butch's website: www.PastorButch.com


THE SEXUALIZATION OF CHILDREN - WHAT PARENTS NEED TO KNOW
https://youtu.be/1TrzG3nVM5U

Friday, January 12, 2018

PUTIN: 'POPE FRANCIS WORKS FOR SATAN'



Putin ROCKS!

Source Article:
Putin: ‘Pope Francis Works for Satan’
http://www.beaware.one/2018/01/09/putin-pope-francis-works-for-satan/


Russian President Vladimir Putin has blasted Pope Francis by exposing him as a “servant of Satan.”

Russia’s leader has spoken out to expose the leader of the Catholic Church by claiming that he doesn’t represent the Christian faith, but is rather an agent of the Devil with an agenda to mislead his loyal flock.

Once again, Putin has demonstrated that he is the most perceptive and honest leader the world has since for a long time by standing up to the global elite in defense of the world’s citizens.

Over recent months, many have begun to question the Pope’s motives as his teachings have seemed to steer away from traditional Christian values.

Putin’s comments on the most powerful religious figure on the planet may have been his most perceptive as of yet and should be heeded not only by Western secular leaders but by the globe’s one billion or so Catholics, most of whom regard Jorge Bergoglio as pope.



The Russian President’s statement came on a visit to the Naval Cathedral of St. Nicholas in Kronstadt.

Mr. Putin succinctly sums up what Pope Francis is not:

“If you look around at what he (the Pope) says it’s clear that he is not a man of God.”

At least not the Christian God, not the God of the Bible.

“He is a servant of Satan who is working to destroy traditional Christian values.”

No truer words have as yet been said about this cretin by a world leader since his wretched pontifical reign began in 2013!

While Mr. Putin and those with “eyes to see and ears to hear” recognize that “Pope Francis” is not a Christian, the current occupant of St. Peter’s Chair is disqualified for that position on theological grounds.

To be a legitimate pope, one must be “bishop of Rome,” and prior to becoming a bishop, one must be a priest.

Jorge Bergoglio was not ordained (1969) in the traditional Apostolic ordination rite of the Church, nor was he consecrated (1992) as a true bishop in that rite.

His predecessor, Benedict XVI, was, likewise, not consecrated in the traditional rite although he was ordained as a priest under the “old rite.”

Simply put: Jorge Bergoglio is just a layman masquerading as a pope as are all of the other priests and bishops which were given Holy Orders under the new rites which came into effect in the aftermath of the Second Vatican Anti-Council (1962-65).

Not only is Pope Francis a Christian fraud as Vladimir Putin and other perceptive commentators have observed, but in secular matters, he is a neo-Marxist in economic thought, a One-World Government advocate, and an enthusiast of open borders and mass migration. In other words, an enemy of what is left of Western Civilization.

Mr. Putin accurately describes his “secular sins:”

Pope Francis is using his platform to push a dangerous far-left political ideology on vulnerable people around the world, people who trust him because of his position

He dreams of a world government and a global communist system of repression

As we have seen before in communist states, this system is not compatible with Christianity If these despicable qualities are not bad enough, there is a seedier side of Bergoglio that Mr. Putin did not address.

Pope Francis is now the third pedophile Pope who has presided over the Church’s Great Sex and Embezzlement Scandal.

Neither Francis or his two derelict predecessors (Benedict XVI, JPII) have done anything to either punish or root out the child predators under their charge.

On the contrary, Francis has encouraged perversion with his now infamous statement of “who am I to judge.”

The debauchery continues to take place with the latest coming right under the nose of the Argentine heretic.

An apartment occupied by the secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts, Francesco Coccopalmerio, was raided in July to break up a “gay” orgy.

The police found drugs and men engaged in orgiastic sex.

Coccopalmerio, who Bergoglio had considered for promotion to bishop, was hauled away and jailed by authorities.

This came on the heels of Cardinal George Pell, the Vatican’s Chief Financial Officer, being charged with sex crimes against ten children.

Pell has since left Rome in disgrace for his native Australia to answer the charges.



Pope Francis: Relationships With Jesus Are Dangerous
https://youtu.be/sGH20H8AV2U







Pope Francis often blasts his critics as “anti-Catholic” but now an uprising has begun from within the religion itself.

In November last year, one of the highest-ranking officials in the Catholic Church claimed that God came to him in a vision and told him to warn Christians that Pope Francis is “evil” and a “false prophet.”

Father Thomas Weinandy, was formerly the doctrine chief of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) but was sacked after he published a letter attempting to expose Pope Francis, saying that a “clear sign” from God convinced him he had an “apostolic mandate” to write it.

The letter revealed that Pope Francis’s papacy is marked by “chronic confusion,” the diminishment of doctrine, and a “culture of fear” that is being used to usher in an “evil New World Order agenda.”

Weinandy said that God told him that Francis, real name Jorge Mario Bergoglio, is using his power and influence to steer his flock away from traditional Christian values and towards “Satanic politics.”

Just this month, in response to the Pope’s reading of Amoris Laetitia, three senior Catholic bishops spoke out claiming that Francis’s teachings are “alien” to the Christian faith.

Francis’ interpretation of Amoris Laetitia to allow some remarried divorcees access to Holy Communion, sparked outrage from within the Vatican with accusations such a reading is causing “rampant confusion,” is “alien” to the Catholic faith, and will spread “a plague of divorce” in the Church in a way that is no way in line with Christianity.

According to LSN, Bishop Athanasius Schneider, auxiliary of Astana, Kazakhstan, Archbishop Tomash Peta, Metropolitan of Astana, and Archbishop Jan Pawel Lenga of Karaganda, Kazakhstan issued a Profession of the immutable truths about sacramental marriage on December 31 as a “service of charity in truth” to the Church of today and to the Pope.

The bishops took the decision to make a “public and unequivocal profession of the truth” regarding the Church’s teaching on the indissolubility of marriage because they say they “are not allowed to be silent.”

As Catholic bishops charged with defending and promoting the Catholic faith and common discipline, they say they have a “grave responsibility” and “duty before the faithful” who expect from them “a public and unequivocal profession of the truth and the immutable discipline of the Church regarding the indissolubility of marriage.”

As Putin himself has previously explained, the Satanic politics of the West are pushing an agenda to destroy the traditional family unit.

They note that after the publication of Pope Francis’ document on the family, Amoris Laetitia, various bishops and bishops’ conferences have issued norms allowing some civilly remarried divorcees, not living in sexual continence, to receive the sacraments of Penance and Holy Communion.

They point out that these various hierarchical authorities (Germany, Malta, and Buenos Aires, although they do not cite them by name), have also received approval “even from the supreme authority of the Church.”

Last month Pope Francis decided to formally declare the Buenos Aires bishops’ interpretation of Amoris Laetitia “authentic magisterium.”

The spread of these ecclesiastically approved pastoral norms “has caused a considerable and ever-increasing confusion among the faithful and the clergy” and are “a means of spreading the ‘plague of divorce’” in the Church, the Kazakhstan bishops write.

“Our Lord and Redeemer Jesus Christ solemnly reaffirmed God’s will regarding the absolute prohibition of divorce,” they recall, and the Church has always preserved and faithfully transmitted both in her doctrine and sacramental discipline “the crystalline teaching of Christ” concerning the indissolubility of marriage.

“Because of the vital importance that the doctrine and discipline of marriage and the Eucharist constitute, the Church is obliged to speak with the same voice. ”

“The pastoral norms regarding the indissolubility of marriage must not, therefore, be contradicted between one diocese and another, between one country and another.”

“Since the time of the Apostles,” the bishops explain, “the Church has observed this principle as St. Irenaeus of Lyons testifies”:

“The Church, though spread throughout the world to the ends of the earth, having received the faith from the Apostles and their disciples, preserves this preaching and this faith with care and, as if she inhabits a single house, believes in the same identical way, as if she had only one soul and only one heart, and preaches the truth of the faith, teaches it and transmits it in a unanimous voice, as if she had only one mouth” (Adversus haereses, I, 10, 2).

They further recall Pope John Paul II’s warning that the confusion sowed in the consciences of the faithful by different “opinions and teachings” would diminish the “true sense of sin, almost to the point of eliminating it.”

Pope John Paul II erected St. Mary in Astana in 1999 and promoted it to an archdiocese on May 17, 2003, appointing Polish-born Tomash Peta as its archbishop.

At the Ordinary Synod on the Family in 2015, Archbishop Peta, who attended as the delegate of Kazakhstan, began his brief intervention with the words Blessed Pope Paul VI pronounced in 1972:

“From some crack, the smoke of Satan has entered the temple of God.”

He then told the Synod Fathers who were assembled:

“I am convinced that these were prophetic words of the holy pope, the author of Humanae Vitae.”

“During the Synod last year [in 2014], ‘the smoke of Satan’ was trying to enter the aula of Paul VI.”

The archbishop added:

“Unfortunately, one can still perceive the smell of this ‘infernal smoke’ in some items of the Instrumentum Laboris and also in the interventions of some synod fathers this year.”

While Western Civilization is on the decline due to economic stupidity and open borders promoted by the likes of Pope Francis, there are a few bright spots, the brightest of which is Vladimir Putin.

If the West is ever going to regain its sanity, it should take the sage counsel of the Russian president especially when he speaks of phonies like Pope Francis.

Source: neonnettle.com